CH 7 Nervous System.ppt - T E H S U O V R E N TT H Y S T S...

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THE NERVOUS SYSTEMDR. NOREEN NELSON7
LEARNING OUTCOMESDescribe the structures and functions ofthe central and peripheral nervoussystems.Identify the different areas of the brainand their associated main functions.Describe the different types of neurogliaand their functions.Name and describe the roles of meningesand the function of cerebrospinal fluid.
LEARNING OUTCOMESIdentify the cranial nerves and theirfunction. (for final)Explain the processes associated with areflex.Explain sensory and motor pathways.Differentiate between the somatic andautonomic nervous systems.Be able to differentiate between thesympathetic and parasympatheticdivisions of the ANS
NEURON COMMUNICATIONhttp://
STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF THENERVOUS SYSTEM:STUDENT NOTESCentral nervous system (CNS)StructuresBrainSpinal cordFunctionsIntegration; command center (brain)Interpret incoming sensory informationIssues outgoing instructions
STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF THENERVOUS SYSTEM:STUDENT NOTESPeripheral nervous system (PNS)Nerves extending from the brain andspinal cordCranial nerves—carry impulses to and from thebrainSpinal nerves—carry impulses to and from thespinal cordFunctionsSensory (afferent) and motor (efferent)divisions.Motor division neurons: somatic (voluntary)and autonomic (involuntary)
Figure 7.2
FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:STUDENT NOTESSensory input—gathering informationTo monitor changes occurring inside andoutside the bodyChanges = stimuliIntegrationTo process and interpret sensory input anddecide if action is neededMotor outputA response to integrated stimuliThe response activates muscles or glands
Figure 7.17bSkullScalpSuperiorsagittal sinusDura materTransversesinusTemporalboneOccipital lobeTentoriumcerebelliArachnoid materover medullaoblongata(b)Cerebellum
MENINGES OF THE CNSThree connective tissue membranesDura materArachnoid materPia mater
PROTECTION OF THE CENTRALNERVOUS SYSTEM:STUDENT NOTESScalp and skinSkull and vertebral columnMeningesCerebrospinal fluid (CSF)Blood-brain barrier
NERVOUS TISSUECOMPRISED OF TWO TYPES OF CELLSNEURONSProvide unique functions: sensing, thinking,remembering, controlling muscle activity &regulating glandular secretions.Two types of nerve fibers: axons and dendritesNEUROGLIASupport, nourish, and protect neuronsDo not generate or propagate actionpotentials
CNS NEUROGLIACNSAstrocytesForms blood-brain barrier which protectsneurons from pathogens and harmful chemicalsOligodendrocytesProduces and maintains myelin (one cell canwrap around multiple neurons)MicrogliaProvides protection against microbial organismsEpendymal cellsProduces cerebrospinal fluid
Figure 7.3aCapillaryNeuronAstrocyte(a) Astrocytes are the most abundantand versatile neuroglia.
BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIERThe least permeable capillaries of the bodyWhat does this mean?

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