LEARNING OUTCOMES•Describe the structures and functions ofthe central and peripheral nervoussystems.•Identify the different areas of the brainand their associated main functions.•Describe the different types of neurogliaand their functions.•Name and describe the roles of meningesand the function of cerebrospinal fluid.
LEARNING OUTCOMES•Identify the cranial nerves and theirfunction. (for final)•Explain the processes associated with areflex.•Explain sensory and motor pathways.•Differentiate between the somatic andautonomic nervous systems.•Be able to differentiate between thesympathetic and parasympatheticdivisions of the ANS
STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF THENERVOUS SYSTEM:STUDENT NOTES•Central nervous system (CNS)•Structures•Brain•Spinal cord•Functions•Integration; command center (brain)•Interpret incoming sensory information•Issues outgoing instructions
STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF THENERVOUS SYSTEM:STUDENT NOTES•Peripheral nervous system (PNS)•Nerves extending from the brain andspinal cord•Cranial nerves—carry impulses to and from thebrain•Spinal nerves—carry impulses to and from thespinal cord•Functions•Sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent)divisions.•Motor division neurons: somatic (voluntary)and autonomic (involuntary)
FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:STUDENT NOTES•Sensory input—gathering information•To monitor changes occurring inside andoutside the body•Changes = stimuli•Integration•To process and interpret sensory input anddecide if action is needed•Motor output•A response to integrated stimuli•The response activates muscles or glands
MENINGES OF THE CNS•Three connective tissue membranes•Dura mater•Arachnoid mater•Pia mater
PROTECTION OF THE CENTRALNERVOUS SYSTEM:STUDENT NOTES•Scalp and skin•Skull and vertebral column•Meninges•Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)•Blood-brain barrier
NERVOUS TISSUECOMPRISED OF TWO TYPES OF CELLS•NEURONS•Provide unique functions: sensing, thinking,remembering, controlling muscle activity ®ulating glandular secretions.•Two types of nerve fibers: axons and dendrites•NEUROGLIA•Support, nourish, and protect neurons•Do not generate or propagate actionpotentials
CNS NEUROGLIACNSAstrocytesForms blood-brain barrier which protectsneurons from pathogens and harmful chemicalsOligodendrocytesProduces and maintains myelin (one cell canwrap around multiple neurons)MicrogliaProvides protection against microbial organismsEpendymal cellsProduces cerebrospinal fluid
Figure 7.3aCapillaryNeuronAstrocyte(a) Astrocytes are the most abundantand versatile neuroglia.
BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER•The least permeable capillaries of the bodyWhat does this mean?