Lecture 5 the faculties of the soul

Lecture 5 the faculties of the soul - Forum! This Friday,...

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Forum! This Friday, 11 a.m., in this auditorium. Come to ask your questions! Soul 2: The Faculties of the Soul: In Christian belief, the soul is the part of us that comes from God In Buddhist belief, there is no such thing as soul Aristotle: the soul is there, a reality. The soul is the enliving element in a thing, a soul cannot exist without a body. The body is potential, but nothing without a soul. The body does not die, the soul does not die When the soul vanishes, the body becomes unlivened. A body a vegetative state lacks feelings and reason but still enlivend by the soul. Summary Soul is form to body as matter in living beings. Soul an essential form: What is it to be a living being? To be ensouled. What is it to be a living being of the human kind? To have a rational soul. (There’s more essence than that). Most important function: Soul the life-conferring element in the compound ‘living being.’ A complex, unified, dynamic forming element that not only confers life, but also determines the specific form of life in its distinctive features. At the same time: something that is fashioned by life, and changes over time. Aristotle neither a dualist concerning body and soul, nor a monist reducing one of the elements by saying that both are just matter/stuff or are just spirit/mind. Hylomorphism is different from both dualism and reductive monism. The body is matter, the soul is form Most important faculties (expanded from last time): the faculties that regulate growth, nutrition and reproduction the faculty of locomotion the faculty for affections, feelings, and desires he faculties for perception and memory the faculty of intellect and practical reason
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Hierarchy Faculties in a hierarchy: the ‘lower’ faculties presupposed for the ‘higher’ ones. As there are living beings that possess only some of them, the faculties organize an order of realms of living beings: ‘Vegetative soul:’ Plants have only the faculties of growth, nutrition and reproduction. ‘Animal soul:’ Animals have the faculties that regulate growth, nutrition and reproduction, locomotion, affections, feelings, and desires, perception. ‘Human soul: Humans possess the faculties that regulate growth, nutrition and reproduction, locomotion, affections, feelings, and desires, perception, intellect, and practical reason. Note: the lower beings have only . . ., and the higher beings add . . . . The integration into the unified soul is different at each level. The vegetative faculty functions differently in humans ) hunger, thirst) when compared to plants, but it still is vegetative, because it fulfills the same purpose. In detail, just the barest outlines: The nutritive and reproductive soul-function: It is the “first and most commonly possessed potentiality of the soul, in virtue of which they all live.” (415a25) The passage makes clear that these belong to all living things. Aristotle thinks that there is something in the plant, a faculty, that is active, and makes it go after nutrition and
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Lecture 5 the faculties of the soul - Forum! This Friday,...

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