Lecture 1- Aristotle on Rhetoricc

Lecture 1- Aristotle on Rhetoricc - Lecture 1 Aristotle on...

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-the thinker is the one who contemplates, analyzes and finds out I. Rhetoric, in the most general sense: - Purpose 1: to witness and see the thinker in action - Purpose 2: make you feel the contrast with how we think today - Purpose 3: evaluate and show alternatives which push you out of your ways of thinking Comprehends all those elements in communication apt or meant to achieve a determinate effect at the receiving end of communication by using means other than the truth. That effect is called persuasion and can consist in a belief (believing the truth), a confirmation, a decision, an appreciation and many more. - Rhetorical sense involves how things are put in communication by using things other than the truth. - The argument transports the truth Communication: a message from a sender to a receiver. ‘Sending out’ at the sending end, ‘uptake’ at the receiving end. What is sent is the message. Usually thought to consist in a meaning and a signifier, something that carries that meaning. Why exclude truth and, more generally, normative validity, from the rhetorical means? If the sender tries to persuade me by, simply, the truth, then he does not try to persuade me via specifically rhetorical means. If I accept what the other is saying simply because I am convinced that it is the truth, then I am not persuaded by rhetorical means. Rhetoric is concerned with ‘how’ something is expressed or put. Truth concerns a ‘what’-question. Rhetoric concerns a ‘how’-question. Or does it? Two radically differing opinions about rhetoric: One says: there is no such thing as truth independent from how things are expressed and held. Just before Aristotle the Sophists thought exactly that. The Sophists said: Whatever is held as true is true. We can persuade anyone of everything, using the right means of persuasion. Aristotle opposes them. The other opinion says: Rhetoric is or ought to be unpersuasive under all circumstances. The only thing that counts is ‘the fact of the matter,’ truth, the ‘best.’ Truth and the best are independent from the way they are being expressed and the same however they may be expressed. Wherever people accept things because of the specific ways in which they are presented to them (the ‘how’), there that acceptance is inadequate. They hold what they hold for the wrong reasons. All rhetoric is perturbation and deception. Aristotle does not agree with this view of rhetoric, either. -
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course HUM CORE 1b taught by Professor Lupton during the Spring '08 term at UC Irvine.

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Lecture 1- Aristotle on Rhetoricc - Lecture 1 Aristotle on...

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