Developmental Psychology Study Guide Test 2

Developmental Psychology Study Guide Test 2 - Developmental...

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Developmental Psychology Study Guide Test #2 1) Proto conversation is the ability of an infant to respond to language and to other nonverbal cues for example smiles, cries, gestures, and eye contact form a basis for communication. The non-language interaction between parent and infant approximates conversation. These actions do not require thought, these actions are just spontaneous. 2) Holophrase is where one word is used to stand for an entire thought. For instance a child says up and that means “pick me up.” Telegraphic speech is sentences in which only the basic words necessary to communicate meaning are used, with helping words such as “a” or “to” left out. For example “I ate food,” actually meaning “I ate all of my food.” Or “mommy go store” really meaning “mommy goes to the store.” 3) Gross motor skills are large muscle movements, for example running. Fine motor skills are smaller muscle movements such as writing. The activities that lead children to use these skills is when the start exploring their environment and doing things on their own for example when they start dressing themselves, eating independently, and starting to play by themselves for periods of time. Preschoolers no longer need to be watched every second, they become more active and independent. 4) Characteristics of children’s thought during preoperational years are: Language skills/ writing Symbolic thought- one thing can stand for something else Pretend play Creativity Main limitations of logical thought are: Conservation- the amount in a cup of water stays the same even if the shape of the container changes Seriation- ordering things- putting things in a series Egocentric- inability to take another’s perspective. Can’t see another’s point of view. Animism- belief that inanimate objects have life ie: teddy bears. 5) Many researchers have found making simple modifications in Piaget’s method can change the outcomes of the experiments. For example, Inhelder and Piaget argued that children can seriate if they can place the items in correct order, put additional into the series, and correct any errors. However, Piaget used a total of 10 sticks in this observation to conclude that true seriation did not occur at this stage. Although when a similar approach was taken using 4 sticks, ¾ of 3-4 year olds could put the sticks in size order about 4/5 could insert new sticks into the order and all the children could correct the incorrect insertions. The 10 sticks were too many for the children to deal with at the time. 6) Scripts are a type of schema that involves knowledge of the events that make up an episode as well as the sequence of the events. Young children find it easier to remember memories that fit into their regular scripts. Preschoolers have limited ability to plan for the future and scripts seem
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to help them anticipate future events. Knowledge of scripts also affects how children make inferences. If they are familiar with the script then they can make inferences more easily. Script
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course PY 3400 taught by Professor Reneemichael during the Spring '08 term at Rockhurst.

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Developmental Psychology Study Guide Test 2 - Developmental...

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