11 motivation - Chapter 11 Motivation I. UNDERSTANDING...

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Chapter 11 – Motivation I. UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATION Motivation: processes involved in starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities; all organisms move toward some stimuli and activities and away from others A. Functional of Motivational Concepts 1. To relate biology to behavior 2. To account for behavior variability 3. To infer private states from public acts 4. To assign responsibility for actions 5. -less responsible for their actions when (1) they did not intend negative consequences to occur (2) external forces were powerful enough to provoke the behaviors (3) the actions were influenced by drugs, alcohol or intense emotion 6. To explain perseverance despite adversity B. Sources of Motivation 1. Drives and incentives -Clark Hull: drives are internal states that arise in response to an animal’s physiological needs -organisms seek to maintain equilibrium (homeostasis) with respect to biological conditions -behavior not only motivated by internal drives behavior motivated by incentives —external stimuli or rewards that do not relate to biological needs 2. Reversal Theory
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-Michael Apter develops theory that rejects idea of motivation as tension reduction Telic Paratelic Serious Playful Goal-oriented Activity-oriented Conformist Negativistic Wants to keep rules Wants to break rules Agreeable Angry Desires to fit in Desires to be independent Mastery Sympathy Power-oriented Care-oriented Tough-minded Sensitive Concerned with kindness Concerned with kindness Autic Alloic Primary concern with self Primary concern with others Self-oriented Identifying with other(s) Focus on own feelings Focus on others’ feelings -reversal theory: seeks to explain human motivation in terms of reversals from one to the other of the opposing states 3. Instinctual behaviors and learning -instincts- preprogrammed tendencies that are essential for the survival of their speices -example: salmon swim thousands of miles back to the exact stream where they
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Scuderi during the Fall '07 term at University of San Francisco.

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11 motivation - Chapter 11 Motivation I. UNDERSTANDING...

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