12 - Chapter 12 Summary I. Emotions -a complex pattern of...

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Chapter 12 Summary I. Emotions -a complex pattern of bodily and mental changes that includes physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, visible expressions and behavioral reactions made in response to a situation perceived as personally significant A. Basic Emotions and Culture 1. Are some Emotional Responses Innate? a. Silvan Tomkins -emphasize the pervasive role of immediate, unlearned affective (emotional) reactions -infants respond to loud sounds with fear or with difficulties in breathing -cross-cultural research confirm expectation that emotional responses are similar in children from different cultures 2. Are Emotional Expressions Universal? a. Paul Ekman - all people share an overlap in “facial language” - emotional expressions is universal – evolutionary heritage -neuro-cultural theory: the joint contributions of the brain and culture in emotional expression B. Theories of Emotion 1. Physiology of Emotion a. Physiology of Emotion a. autonomic nervous system (ANS) -sympathetic: flight-or-fight -parasympathetic: rest-or-digest
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-emergency reaction system: prepares body for potential danger b. central nervous system (CNS) i. hypothalamus and limbic system -controls emotions and for patterns of attack, defense, and flight -amygdala is a gateway for emotion and filters memory II. cortex -emotional experiences through its internal neural networks and connections with other parts of the body -provides the associations, memories and meanings 2. James-Lange Theory of Body Reaction a. James –Lange Theory of Emotion -perceiving a stimulus causes autonomic arousal and other bodily actions that lead to the experience of a specific emotion 3. Cannon-Bard Theory of Central Neural Processes a. Cannon-Bard theory of Emotion -an emotion stimulus produces two concurrent reactions, arousal and experience of emotion that do not cause each other -predicts independence between bodily and psychological responses 4. Cognitive Appraisal Theories of Emotion a. Stanley Schacter -experience of emotion is the joint effect of physiological arousal and cogntive appraisal with both parts necessary for an emotion to occur b. Richard Lazarus -“emotional experience cannot be understood solely in terms of what happens in the person or in the brain, but grows out of ongoing transactions with the environment that are evaluated”
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-appraisal occurs without conscious thought- “cognitive appraisal theory of emotion” C. Functions of Emotion 1. Motivation and Attention a. arousal- take action with regard to some experienced or imagined event
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12 - Chapter 12 Summary I. Emotions -a complex pattern of...

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