16 - Chapter 16 SOCIAL COGNITION AND RELATIONSHIPS -social...

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Chapter 16 – SOCIAL COGNITION AND RELATIONSHIPS -social psychology: the study of the ways in which thoughts, feelings, perceptions, motives and behavior are influenced by interactions and transactions between people -understand behavior within its social context -social cognition: the processes by which people select, interpret, and remember social information A. Constructing Social Reality - selectively encode : what is happening in terms of what they expect to see and want to see Example: football game; people looked at the same activity, but they saw two different games - social perception : the process by which people come to understand and categorize the behaviors of others - casual attributions : how people make judgments about the forces that influence other people’s behavior a. The Origins of Attribution Theory - attribution theory : approach to describing the ways the social perceiver uses information to generate causal explanations - Harold Kelley : observed that people most often make causal attributions for events under conditions of uncertainty; people grapple with uncertainty by accumulating information from multiple events and using the covariation principle - covariation principle : people should attribute a behavior to a casual factor if that factor was present whenever the behavior occurred but was absent whenever it didn’t occur i. distinctiveness: refers to whether the behavior is specific to a particular situation ii. consistency: refers to whether the behavior occurs repeatedly in response to this situation iii. consensus: refers to whether other people also produce the same behavior in the same situation b. The Fundamental Attribution Error - fundamental attribution error (FAE) : the dual tendency for people to overestimate dispositional factors (blame or credit people) and to underestimate situational factors (blame or credit the environment) when searching for the cause of some behavior or outcome
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c. Self-Serving Biases - self-serving bias : leads people to take credit for their successes while denying or explaining away responsibility for their failures d. Expectations and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies - self-fulfilling prophecies
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16 - Chapter 16 SOCIAL COGNITION AND RELATIONSHIPS -social...

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