Chapter 10 Outline - Chapter 10 Summary STUDYING...

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Chapter 10 Summary STUDYING DEVELOPMENT -normative investigations: seek to describe a characteristic of a specific age or developmental stage -developmental age: chronological age at which most people show the particular level of physical or mental development demonstrated by that child -cross-sectional design: groups of participants, of different chronological ages, are observed and compared at one and the same time Prenatal and Childhood Development A. Physical Development in the Womb B. Babies Prewired for Survival C. Growth and Maturation in Childhood -maturation: process of growth typical of all members of a species who are reared in the species’s usual habitat Physical Development in Adolescence A. Vision B. Hearing C. Reproductive and Sexual Functioning COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN Piaget’s Insights into Mental Development Stage/Ages Characteristics and Major Accomplishments Sensorimotor (0-2) Child begins life with small number of sensorimotor sequences Preoperational (2-7) Child develops object permanence and the beginnings of symbolic thought Concrete operations (7-11) Child’s thought is marked by egocentrism and centration Formal operations (11+) Child develops capacity for abstract reasoning and hypothetical thinking
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Contemporary Perspectives on early Cognitive Development A. Infant cognition -Renee Baillargeon: four-month-olds and object permanence B. Children’s Foundational Theories -frameworks for initial understanding- to explain experiences of the world C. Social and Cultural Influences on Cognitive Development -internalization: absorb knowledge from their social context that has a major impact on how cognition unfolds over time (Lev Vygotsky) Cognitive Development in Adulthood A. Intelligence -wisdom: expertise in the fundamental practices of life -Warner Schaie: training programs can reverse older adults’ decline in some cognitive abilities -Paul Baltes and Margaret Baltes- selective optimization with compensation; selective- people scale down the number and the extent of their goals for themselves; optimization- people exercising or training themselves in areas that are of highest priority to them; compensation:
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Chapter 10 Outline - Chapter 10 Summary STUDYING...

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