Chapter 16 - UGC

Chapter 16 - UGC - Chapter 16: The Maritime Revolution to...

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Chapter 16: The Maritime Revolution to 1550: Zheng He (1371-1435) – led the Ming expeditions into the Indian Ocean. He was a Chinese Muslim with ancestral connections to the Persian Gulf. Because of this he was a fitting representative to go to the increasingly Muslim-dominated Indian Ocean Basin. Three of his voyages were extending to the African coast. Arawak – By the year 1000, Amerindians which were known as the Arawak had moved up from the small islands of the Lesser Antilles ( Barbados, Martinique, and Guadeloupe) and into the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico), as well as into the Bahamas. In addition to sailing up the Pacific coast, early Amerindian voyagers from South America also colonized the West Indies. Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) – led the attack on Ceuta, and he was the third son of the king of Portugal. He devoted the rest of his life to promoting exploration of the South Atlantic. He had many motives for exploration: converting Africans to Christianity, making contact with existing Christian rulers in Africa, and launching joint crusades with them against the Ottomans. He wanted to discover new places and hoped that such contacts would be profitable. He initially only wanted to explore Africa, only later did reaching India become an explicit goal of Portuguese explorers. He never ventured much farther from home than North Africa. He founded a sort of research institute at Sagres, for studying navigation and collecting information about the lands beyond Muslim North Africa. Henry’s staff drew on the pioneering efforts of Italian merchants, especially the Genoese, who had learned some of the secrets of the trans-Saharan trade and of fourteenth century Jewish cartographers, who used information from Arab and European sources to produce remarkably accurate sea charts and maps of distant places. Henry also oversaw the collection of new geographical information from sailors and travelers and sent out ships to explore the Atlantic. His ships established permanent contact with the islands of Madeira in 1418 and the Azores in 1439. Henry devoted resources to solving the technical problems faced by mariners sailing in unknown waters and open seas. His staff studies and improved navigational instruments that had come into Europe from China and the Islamic world. These instruments included the magnetic compass, first developed in China and the astrolabe, an instrument of Arab or Greek invention that enabled mariners to determine their location at sea by measuring the position of the sun or the starts in the night sky. It took Henry fourteen year, from 1420-1434, to coax an expedition to venture beyond southern Morocco. In the years that followed, Henry’s explorers made an important addition to the maritime revolution by learning how to return speedily to Portugal. Instead of battling the prevailing northeast trade winds and currents back up the coast. They discovered that by sailing northwest into the Atlantic to
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Chapter 16 - UGC - Chapter 16: The Maritime Revolution to...

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