cheat sheet - Kidney Regulation of the water and...

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Kidney Regulation of the water and electrolyte content of the body. Retention of substances vital to the body such as protein and glucose Maintenance of acid/base balance. Excretion of waste products, water soluble toxic substances and drugs. Endocrine functions Normal osmosis allows water to flow through a cellulose membrane to dilute a salt solution on the other side. Reverse osmosis uses pressure to ram water out of a salt solution to create freshwater on the other side. Dialysis allows water and salts to flow through a membrane leaving the big proteins and cells trapped on the inside. The kidney needs to do something more difficult, which is to allow small waste molecules, especially urea, out but lose as little water as possible and lose no salt. To do this it has to let water, urea and salt out through a membrane, then use energy to pump the salt back into the blood. Once the urine has no salt, the water flows back out through a membrane into the blood. 20% of the cardiac output Approximately 99% of the blood flow goes to the cortex and 1% to the medulla. The cortex is the outer part of the kidney containing most of the nephrons. The medulla is the inner part of the kidney and contains the specialised nephrons in the juxta-medullary region, immediately next to the medulla. Acid: a substance that can release hydrogen ions in solution.
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course EGR 101 taught by Professor K during the Spring '08 term at UMass Dartmouth.

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