catheters - TES 105 Catheters Instructor: Prabir Patra...

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TES 105 Catheters Instructor: Prabir Patra Definition of a catheter A flexible tube inserted into a body channel to maintain an opening to the channel. Catheters are commonly used in veins for ongoing drug treatment. These thin plastic tubes are inserted into the body to make measurements or add or remove fluid. For example, a catheter can be introduced into an artery and moved to a location in the heart to measure pressure changes. They are mostly made of polyurethane (a type of plastic). Classification of Catheters Peripheral Venous Access This is the typical "hospital IV" line put in patient's hand or forearm when admitted to the hospital. It is a short catheter, usually 3/4 to 1 inch long, inserted into a small peripheral vein and designed to be temporary. These catheters need to be changed every three days or more often if they dislodge from the vein. Because the veins used are small and have less blood flowing past the catheter, many medications can irritate a peripheral vein. Some medications cannot be given through a peripheral vein. There is a plastic dressing over the catheter, which has to be kept clean and dry at all times. These peripheral IV lines work well in the hospital, where there are nurses to monitor and change them frequently, but are impractical for extended home use because of the potential for dislodging the small catheter from the vein. Patient has to be careful when moving his/her arm and daily activities become a little more difficult. Blood cannot be drawn for lab tests from a peripheral catheter. A peripheral catheter needs to be flushed with a saline and heparin injection after every use or at least twice daily if not in use. Saline is a salt solution used to clean or "flush out" the catheter and heparin is flushed into the catheter to prevent blood from clotting in it between uses Midline Peripheral Catheters This type of catheter is inserted into patient's arm near the inside of the elbow and threaded up inside one's vein to a length of 6 inches. One brand name of this type of catheters is Landmark, but several brands are available. It is no more painful than having a peripheral IV inserted because patient does not feel the catheter moving up his vein. These catheters typically last about six weeks -- a perfect catheter for a short course of antibiotics, but not really practical for long-term intravenous therapy. The end of the catheter will reach a much larger vein with more blood flow and will cause less irritation of the vein. Because the catheter is so soft and the end is well inside the vein, the chances of it dislodging are much less than with a peripheral IV. It will still need to be covered with a plastic dressing which needs to be kept clean and dry. That means wrapping your arm in plastic wrap before a shower, or taking a bath instead, holding your arm
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catheters - TES 105 Catheters Instructor: Prabir Patra...

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