geology Notes - Geological Hazards Notes People and...

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Geological Hazards Notes People and Geologic Hazards An Active World Earth: an actively changing planet Earth materials (rock, soils, water, etc) acted on by internal and external energy These interactions constantly rearrange mass and heat Interactions are geological processes- constant rearrangement Natural disaster: when geological hazards impact people Mitigation: reducing or eliminating a hazard Risk Identification Planning Warning Evacuation Rescue & Relief efforts  Mitigation is expensive- part of hazard costs casualties (people killed, injured, or displaced) Property damage Mitigation efforts in countries like US has greatly diminished but the costs of hazards is increasing In part due to population increase but also over development in hazard prone areas Global Population Densities Many densely populated regions now near geologically active zone Population pressure will lead to more people near geologically active areas World’s Population Improved medical knowledge and mechanized agriculture since 1850 Has allowed human population to grow exponentially Takes less and less time for population to double Exponential Growth: amount increases faster the larger it becomes World population expected to double to 12 billion before stabilizing around 2100 Population growth is uneven and more developed countries population is pretty stable- in less developed  the birth rate is up for manual labor use Age distribution is uneven as well-developed countries have younger people Human Impact on Environment Can change local ecology: change in vegetation- change in erosion Change surface water flows- desertification, change in flooding patterns Change atmospheric chemistry- ozone, Co2 Alter landforms through mining, building- erosion and flood People are sometimes forced to overuse and deplete resources- increase hazards (charcoal- landslides) Civil war, famine, end of civilization if extreme large population centers exist near known hazards
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Elements The fundamental until of chemistry Reactions/ bonds All matter = element/ compound of elements 92 naturally occurring (gas, liquid, solid) Thousands of known compounds- limitless # of possibilities Atoms Basic unit- smallest piece of an element Has the same properties as mother element Made unique by different numbers of subatomic particles The number of particles determines the chemical properties of the element Protons- major subatomic particles that control chemical characteristics along with neutrons (most of the 
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