Reading Revolution Revision

Reading Revolution Revision - Reading Revolution Did...

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Reading Revolution Did a “revolution in reading” take place over the course of the 18 th century, and if so, why? Did enlightenment Europe witness a “revolution in reading” and if so, why? Habermas’ public sphere - 17 th /18 th century- emergence of the “public sphere” - European phenomenon- space for communication based on the rationality of those within it. - Public sphere: sphere of private persons coming together as a public to discuss economy, culture…making public use of their reason. - Rise of the nation state: demand for information; politics and economics. - New sphere of family; demand for culture. - Increasingly powerful force in European culture- the paying public. Literacy rates - 1680s- 1780s literacy rates in France increased from 29%- 47% in men, and 14%- 27% in women. - Three France’s in terms of literacy: 1. highly literate North East 2. a less literate but progressing south 3. Illiterate Atlantic region from lower Normandy to Limousin. - Metropolis- higher levels of literacy o 1789 90% male Parisians could sign their wills o 1789 80% of female Parisians could sign their wills - Close correlation between low literacy and low social status. Plus being a female. Church Influence - Many of the most literate parts of Europe were protestant; Dutch Republic, Scotland, England. - Emphasis placed by protestant reformers on the need to gain access to the word of God. Put a premium on the ability to read it. - A need to compete prompted both Protestants and Catholics to promote education. - Mass literacy was promoted by the Churches in the service of religion. - In Catholic Europe it was most often missionary orders which took the initiative to improve- or initiate- popular education. - France: Sisters of the Holy Infant Jesus and the Christian Brothers, both founded at Rheims, could claim much of the credit for making North East France one of the most literate parts of Europe. - Founder of the Christian Brothers persuaded Louis XVI to issue a decree ordering all children ages 7-14 to attend a Catholic school. - Episcopal visitation records reveal that virtually all parishes boasted a school by 1780s in the Electorate of Trier.
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Secular Influence - Other secular forces working towards mass literacy. -
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course HIST culture an taught by Professor Drclarke during the Spring '08 term at Trinity College Dublin.

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Reading Revolution Revision - Reading Revolution Did...

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