Psychology Final Review

Psychology Final Review - Psychology Final Review CHAPTER 5...

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Psychology Final Review CHAPTER 5- HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Genetics Male genotype- XY, Female genotype- XX Monozygotic twins- Twin who develop from the same fertilized egg; identical twins Dizygotic twins- Twins who develop from two eggs fertilized by two different sperm; fraternal twins Sex Linkage Sex-linked genes- Recessive genes on the X chromosome are more likely to be expressed in male because the Y chromosome does not contain another (potentially dominant) copy (eg color-blindness) Sex-limited genes- Occur equally as often in both sexes but are expressed phenotypically more often in one sex than the other (eg facial hair) Genetics and Behavior Direct influence of genes on behavior Genes control the expression of neurotransmitters and brain development Indirect influence of genes on behavior Genes control the expression of proteins that influences bodily functions which then influence behavior (eg lactose intolerance) Cognitive Development: Inferring Infant Capacities Vision 2 days old: Infants direct attention toward human faces (inferred by recording time spent looking at faces compared to other stimuli) Hearing: studied by habituation/ dishabituation paradigm 1 month old: Infants can discriminate between speech sounds that will be important for processing verbal language later on (eg ba vs. pa) Learning and Memory 3 days old infants recognize (and are soothed by) their mother’s voice Research Design in Developmental Psychology Cross-Sectional- Compares groups of different ages all at the same time Longitudinal- Follows a single group of individuals as they develop Cross-Sequential- Study two age groups, then study them again at a later date Cohort Effects Groups of people born in different times or different places may different systematically, thus confounding research designed to study the effect of a different variable (age) Piaget’s View of Cognitive Development Piaget’s basic insight was that thought processes different qualitatively at different developmental stages Schema A mental representation, molded through interaction with the world, that guides thought and action. Adapted through: - Assimilation: applying an old schema to new objects or problems - Accommodation: modifying an old schema to fit a new object or problem - Equilibration: a balance between the above, which optimally fosters intellectual growth through empirical falsification or existing assumptions contained with a schema Piaget’s Stages of Development Sensoriomotor Stage (birth to 18 months) Behavior is mostly simple motor responses to sensory stimuli - No Object Permanence, the knowledge that objects continue to exist when they are not in sight Preoperational Stage (+/- 2 years to +/- 7 years) Child lacks operations, which are reversible mental processes - Egocentrism: child sees the world as centered around him/herself and cannot easily take another person’s perspective - No Conservation, the understanding that objects conserve certain properties even after changing form or arrangement o If you pour water from a tall, thin glass into a short, wide glass, preoperational children will tell you there is less H2O
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