Phil 4 Review

Phil 4 Review - PHILOSOPHY 4 FINAL REVIEW Meta-ethics 1....

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PHILOSOPHY 4 FINAL REVIEW Meta-ethics 1. What is the divine command theory of ethics? - Right and wrong determined by the will of God - Easy, convenient answer - Most of the texts (Karan, Bible) have in some way been shown false - Atheism: “There is no God” – an argument must have a premise that the counterpoint agrees with; invalid argument when opposing DCT 2. What is Euthyphro’s dilemma objection to the divine command theory? - Euthyphro: Honesty is good because God wills it - Socrates: Is honesty good because God wills it, or does God will honesty because it is good? 3. What does the cultural relativist think about morality? - Every culture varies in their own morality, and we should respect each culture for their belief systems; extreme tolerance for everything 4. Explain the cultural differences argument for relativism and the main objection to that argument. - If a society is intolerant, as extreme tolerants, we cannot preach to them tolerance because that would be immoral. The same as if someone in an intolerant society is tolerant. 5. Be able to explain two objections to cultural relativism. - Not allowed to condemn certain actions, as long as they are sanctioned by the culture in which they take place (Ex. We cannot condemn Nazi Germany) - It does not make sense that morality of a culture can be based off taking a poll of the society—it’s too subject to change - What is culture, technically? And subcultures within societies? No delineation - Counteracts what we see historically as colonialism o The idea that tolerance is a good thing is good. In the past, we’ve seen out viewpoint as correct, and their’s as wrong. o Cultural relativism is extreme tolerance. o We cannot condemn an intolerant culture because of our own tolerances, therefore allowing acts against humanity to continue. - When one culture is integrated in another, the culture 6. What is nonobjectivism? - There are no moral facts, only claims - Truths must be discoverable though reason or through experience 7. What is the difference between cognitivism and noncognitivism? - Cognitivism: Moral statement just present propositions, and all are false, there are no true moral statements - Noncognitivism: Moral statements cannot be evaluated by truth, they just express opinions; not true or false
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8. What is simple subjectivism? Provide illustrations. - Claiming your own state of mind, making a subjective evaluation - “I believe murder is wrong” – just booing on murder, not proposing any type of morality 9. What is the moral disagreement objection to simple subjectivism? - We want to assume that is it possible for people, when arguing against each— saying things in conflict with each other, making opposing points. -
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course PHIL 4 taught by Professor Chandler during the Winter '08 term at UCSB.

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Phil 4 Review - PHILOSOPHY 4 FINAL REVIEW Meta-ethics 1....

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