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Unformatted text preview: Oklahoma City Bombing Prepared for: Professor Robert Sullivan In partial fulfillment of the requirements For FA 06 POLS 4309.IS Terrorism Intelligence Dallas Baptist University Cody C Caudill Wednesday, November 15, 2006 Contents
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 1 Timothy McVeigh ................................................................................................................................ 2 Childhood & Adolescence ............................................................................................................... 2 Pendleton, NY & Military Life........................................................................................................ 3 Alienation .......................................................................................................................................... 5 Mi e t ei ch wh v n V` B Ru eN i g s r o .............................................................................................. 6 & l t o Effect on America ................................................................................................................................. 8 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................ 8 Works Cited ........................................................................................................................................ 10 Caudill 1 Introduction
Prior to September 11, 2001, the Oklahoma City Bombing was the largest domestic terrorist attack on America. The bombing claimed 168 lives many young children namely inside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. Tt n h n Ac ha te d m ic ha e sk er o r a o l f i t t a a destroyed t e K a e ei sgbu hy h r i y C ,ht t aob f e i d C ew w ot nul e Ac s a n h au en as m ` D rt c h o a s r h t et c a z T News and World Report sta i the order and meaning of o h n e e U.S. . th co a ekl t a t e tv s st a e life (Linenthal 2). The rescue and recovery lasted from April 19 until May 4, 1995. The worldwide audience saw firefighter, Chris Fields, carrying a one-year-old Baylee Almon in his arms; they also saw the search for survivors, recovery of the injured, desperate family members, and even some public funerals. This was the first incidence people were able to view a real epic tragedy on television. Ous w l ba membership in the imagined nh t e r n ns to eoe re o d a t t e oor ta h rs e a , s ue i b e m ... orp go e s f n e m e d u n nsr a rxi h c n r c n o d st pap n u o f e o i baei rtr s m n r a m t u ea p i e o a c o v y i a n p es o r shockingly inappropriate intrusions into the intimate world of people dealing with the mysteries o ea fnt vt id (Linenthal 2-3). oe l h 9:02 am, the time of the 7,000 miles per hour gas explosion, went down in history for the survivors and community of Oklahoma City (Irving 76). The city typically receives less than 80 calls a day, but thirty minutes after the bombing, the incident command center had received 338 calls for help (65). The bomb destroyed parts of all nine stories of the Federal Building; however, there are stories from survivors up to the seventh floor (85). The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) sent ten response teams to help with the recovery work of the bombings (88). First responders were numbered up to 350 rotating twenty-four hours a day Caudill 2 (90). Jon Hansen, a twenty-two year career firefighter of Oklahoma City, wrote an account of h e gi r r s ne s hy n r i d t e c .t I er o io n s u h o vHt ld amn u e t r e f e ed at r e sc v i i t ey a e h e t m n m o e r e , g ae be completely ready to face. You can be prepared-- that helps--you can never totally be and but ready for a disaster o mt f ad t ge h n. i i s u A total number of 168 died on April 19, 1995 in the Oklahoma City Bombing. Nineteen of them were children. There were over 500 people who were injured also fall in this severe category (missing a limb, etc). There were ten children who lost both parents that day in the Murrah Building ten orphans. More than 150 people under the age of 23 lost a parent in the bombing. It was an estimated 40 percent of the community knew someone who was killed or injured (Serrano 154). Timothy McVeigh
Childhood & Adolescence
Timothy McVeigh grew up in Pendleton, one of the smallest towns in western New York. Pendleton has always been a typical, all-American, hard-working, middleclass te owa wh ne ,r stranger is always made to feel at home (Stickney 52). During his years growing up, Timothy McVeigh said the one person he ever loved was his grandfather, Ed McVeigh (Michel and Herbeck 106). It was T thirteenth birthday when i m ` s his grandfather gave him a .22 caliber rifle. Ed told young Tim stories of his childhood of hunting on wild horses that he broke. He stressed the responsibility of care he must take when cleaning and loading firearms. The more Timothy collected firearms, the more his grandfather became excited(Stickney 65-66). His father, Bill McVeigh, fostered his interest in guns by Caudill 3 purchasing him his first shotgun when Tim was fifteen years old. Not that it was wrong to own or use guns, but Tim did not like to hunt to target practice (69). just Self-n , We s t6o D n B n a ad e s b nt ls m T n bo 1` y ae o eh d an 9s de r e h 0 g id et , n o h m, struggled with the reputation of his family (Stickney 76). During the last of his high school years in 1986, his parents had filed for divorce (77). His father sold the home in June of 1985 and the realization of the end of the family e p h c u n pn cd p ll d lrn r d s o w se m t e ey g o af a a e c i n d ee t oa t em a s) still excelled in school scholarships and attending class. ol. ts (Tim i c8 o a2 nr earning He worked at Burger King for extra money during those years to keep focus off his real life (78). Although, McVeigh would not openly talk about his parents following the attack, his old Army companion, John Kelso recalls, r b c h a o whore, I e e a i mt -good jm r l s ma u eh l an s m ii m t mn g h t a w la nh y go bi . i a s okt ea t o so m H n e l re Hvdh o a u o e` u d t er ng t ah m d h t sh ` i . e an d y t i s dv t contact with his mom. I know there was ale tssdh) pm einc m ( r tb a iec3 o h u `u u8 b r t ts e , w ds . Timothy did concede,uw question: Do I love my parents?...I have very few g i I gt sl the te r h mr mi dnti ps n m man e sy ho r w ync lh r i m o cofa t a. ` e f t o fho i i h r I b t o h i e l ,to m e a a e ng d en c t t y thn me. I was often by myself or with neighbors. Most of my memories focus on h ae a pd t pt ` eo s that (Michel and Herbeck 7). Pendleton, NY & Military Life
H i o ch gmt sl kid to a killer? Many o Th V ce a i w w i Miaro e dm d t eh f su l y g no u , -liked d s ena sb a a n. oo tr a en its n s T a t tm i c w t, w r cn hce h e d h s w u s d t e fr Ac ta h g of i u o t f r a i tt e a er a w so kw fema c hs , oo m n aon h lc h w d h uo e o sr f i e e e ae i ln tw u s o de W eoi d co ne e r s s. n on ln rs Caudill 4 twenties, his eyes had turned cold. Bitter cold, some said. He smiled less; his dreams were d. oo gk ybo a a H re bh c t uy r e s b c v at l k w h i e o b s e r es l a m o u (Serrano 11). ,a sl Mir Richard Drzyzga, also considered him a smart young man who was che V`n e f, gi sd likable. Drzyzga suggested McVeigh join the military after seeing him wtmoving from am se t e i one dead-eb o Hpaoichesto n tt e dil Mim utb doh h t w g V sf b y ja r oh u e e o n. e et d t v g ou t oc h h ,e were excited over the idea of getting to use so many weapons. On the math portions of both the military vocational aptitude test and a math exam for business school, McVeigh missed only one question. Recruiters from all the branches had interest in his talents. He had offers to become a nuclear-propulsion specialist but thought the idea of being a combat solider the most enjoyable (Michel and Herbeck 49-50). During his time at Fort Benning, McVeigh met two cohorts who would stick together for the rest of his life. Most notably, Terry Lynn Nichols, at the time, the oldest recruit in Mi o y lr os cit la Bi chm ,d b wao ee hC og V` pw le n a po k e c n ue na c l h a im g s a o tk a n m tOo t b c my n (Michel and Herbeck 54). McVeigh was over ten years younger when he met Nichols. Nichols had an air about himself of maturity, which made others in the company, McVeigh included, look up to him. William Dilly was the other cohort, who described McVeigh and Nichols as br e e n cewmim ieD a rs y d thr a oe i dyld o: w ro o I at il r ii t e we t t ll d T s hT r eh a ah . ssT o k z r l e ,y (55). Nichols left the Army unexpectedly, getting a hardship discharge, which allowed him to return home to help his family(Michel and Herbeck 59). McVeigh was commissioned to be a combat solider in Dessert Storm and arrived on his first overseas trip in Saudi Arabia in January 1991 (66). His most atffah bnc ch e bmh b o t c aMid n l es e nr k r V a je olg i a M . en o y i i i ns e i i h p g a friend were the first combat veterans that were sent back to the states for the Special Forces Caudill 5 tryout (82). These were times that he attracted the most beautiful women of his life. On one flight he spoke to people for thirty minutes, telling them of their experience his it was experience as a hero (83). It was time for McVeigh to try out for the Special Forc t e st ,h be u three months he spent in the Persian Gulf had broken McVeigh down, physically and e n H s fes hn a d r ed s m a eo s w y `u p oe l s ol w ta oed r e f u v e ty a op rt e dr p n e s i. o l uh ;e ed , e i ur t o ,i r e , tet ho t e gr(Although, he was given a chance i ssinl n u ...4 m pen s fe n . e e r cn r y e 8 hn c agt om n a y s ) to defer, peer pressure kept him going. It was too much; he failed d ba i i de n t untg e pg r n e i u n point in his life (85). In mid-1991, he got back in touch with his friend, Terry Nichols. The more they talked t rch dhr rc dt d o e h eV ft s TNlg r aen e e ua h ei i f e v t m Mi nt a rh s o r r o g oh e dy o u fl n (Michel e ` seg m s and Herbeck 90). Although, he was offered various job opportunities, McVeigh quit his fortyt oan r 1 ch could no longer stomach being part of a h nr tm ) V felt he r t e ey. e e h r A ( i e ci m eh 9M g government that fought so hard against the sacred Second Amendment rights of gun owners. He no longer wanted to work for a government hsnt . last months of his eb ih These w gg t ai o en a n e service in the Army went well, however, McVeigh believed there was a lot to look forward to after being in Pendleton. Alienation
For Christmas 1991, Kyle Kraus received The Turner Diaries from his cousin Timothy McVeigh (Serrano 51). The Turner Diaries, written in 1978, was c i r a t la lh ec l e os e b ft d b i r I th eo y, J nc rr i t h i rs G h w b wh i o g h at ee o i s l e c n h e t s c bdl aa e h f t l w wh . d e n w e dk t l e s ed e Satan McVeigh treasured these books over the past years, compelling many of his Army (52). friends to read excerpts. McVeigh called his cousin to find out if he enjoyed it half as much as Caudill 6 h . shIvo l,tde rh if it e K t mir e on oe,f h r l , a pf k il r y tening a a d ew baw by r d u i s y r od u v eg o t u vi rdmt The story continues: e i ei ad t. l c o l o h y s s hp i n bedroom. There it remained for three K kiy s d re cne-story ap o h o ut s is c years, until one spring evening in April 1995 when he walked upstairs and read some pages and, in his own disbelief, feared that some of the story indeed had come true. He telephones the FBI, and his book--one his cousin had given the him--a o e x Ni States of America v. b een h o United e Gn` i . c v t b 1 m r s i n m Et Timothy McVeigh (Serrano 51). For the next year and a half McVeigh spent his time attending a great deal of gun shows and sending friends news clips of articles that he felt infringed rights regarding to firearms. Then, on April 19, 1993, he was attracted to Waco, Texas (Serrano 65). A standoff between the FBID Khl l fifty-one d H vtr h a aa os w l nv r coa di e u us d s td ` t a e l TNlm y t de i` s s r oy o r . a e e rc f o s the two could travel down to get as close to the FBI checkpoints and support the cause. They were late getting there as the FBI burned the compound down killing an estimated 80 people. Mid ol o e t it ai p ; chNle tv nh t t s g e t V ai bee r tee e k i p e en hed g m f n a g c i h e o U S wi t l sv n d s ls e l n oh s td nh md m i compared the FBI to the Gestapo of le b.e m da e a r e Tce aathat u hg g au y n h o e g z n World War II (76). McVeigh` year was spent sending literature and movies to childhood s next friends, Army friends and family (77). M e 'eB h Ro i cis wi &elo V hN r g t vt un
In 1994, McVeigh declared his new birthday to be April 19. It was not a coincident that p l i Ptya r Waco, start of the American Revolution, aa s as tna rr a t Dh ir t d l r a ns i a s i , vy c y oo u ` e e of and the beginning of gunfire at Lexington and Concord. McVeigh rented a small home in Caudill 7 Arizona and began preparing for of April 19, 1995, when the revolution, his revolution, the date w b e r Army friend Fortier, stating he and Nichols h e to oe Mi o ug ch e li V wold dn . gt ac di e dd d t m e sa. e e V a o p t n a e oic Ak, er n ry g k tfit w a ch eh p eh e y p e n e r i i i el i s po o ti vo l t M g v s rl m r d ot i they were going to blow up a building (Serrano 78-79). Over the next year, three men, McVeigh, Fortier, and Nichols, stole guns, stored guns throughout the country, and planned to turn a truck into a bomb in Oklahoma City. McVeigh said, the building was chosen because it h erta W cf aoe e ri w e o f a o c e u e u g a r r o t n o r n car in se d r t w t e h c am md a g li h s ek ao ts n p as n America, and hopefully that would knock some people off the fence and urge them into taking action against the federal government (97). McVeigh was anything but quiet at v nw b eo a to force to erupt. o u hs u rt egoing t ei h l o There are at least half a dozen accounts, which he wrote friends of something big that is going to happen in a year, month, etc. He spent one night telling his sister, Jennifer of the revolution that was coming inviting her to be a part. She later told her friends at a Christmas party in 1994, l n rla e bgtpi br n Y seAoy t io hn m t d oe i p Moi i g p t r. ` uet r ` ie i sh g i a w y e o l h r m gs o eh o It n n h kwt to b. eib v ny egoing n h sii e T sg al a u t o a, ` g b h gt rt drer w tbs t i e o e o n `h iu g o g r n i tn ` o ei o i u o e t ioi o t r s(Serrano 116). He later wrote her the exact date (117). bh at e u gu ws a s n Somber accounts tell of Timothy McVeigh who awoke or 1 fe nl9t ` A 95 p , ah i 9r 1 ed si an seat of the big yellow Ryder rental truck f f f ley e a p bi t b padded l k e r a te o wt n oi t n o seven-thousand-p bsbo qr hi t m m o o To ayae wte i b u m hm s ats e ftb n b i w l rs g h c d . b n u le h a o et o o used on Hiroshima in the Second World War (Michel and Herbeck 1). The rest is the history lesson. Caudill 8 Effect on America
Reverend Billy Graham sympathized with the victims by canceling events and traveling while ill. In reflection of the day, he said, events in recent memory have burned themselves into the hearts and minds Few of the American people as deeply as the tragic and senseless bombing in Oklahoma City on April 19,...w 1 Ar 9 semember those who died in this 9 5 e tragedy, may we each be challenged to renew our faith, and inspired to reaffirm our commitment to banish hate and violer r a r n n m l n n. c o e ot e us uo f ida o v i Pei o t dw t g s o o h l rn tme o e o ti s d s eto m a c b oc e i e s Cn it l a r j tw d v i l c to l n i u h h t i d n d n t e i (Serrano 173). Conclusion
The aim of this paper is to determine what intelligence the Oklahoma City bombing had prior to the attack and what intelligence, if any, could be gained to prevent future attacks. Obviously, too many United State citizens McVeigh was planning to revolt against the government. McVeigh believed, he was fighting the war, his war, and acting out the at last gsa mftk r fy h o o e a f i ro a nrsi t to ae (Serrano 118). Aside from the masses of letters he e s t vb wrote, he began giving away his belongings (121). A quick view of a biography of McVeigh is evidence to raise flags of emotional and psychological difficulties, which are in complete connection to the attack America experienced. The FBI and CIA must actively seek out people who have creditable threats. It stands to reason if the marketing was right one of the dozen or so individuals involved in the massacre of these bombings could have spoken out. Arguably, most citizens would not know what the Caudill 9 appropriate authority is, and if they did, how to contact them. This case involves no attempts in reports Timothy McVeigh, but as shown, there are number of individuals who either disagreed with McVeigh or were passive listeners to his plan. A marketing scheme would deter such events from happening. The idea of the FBI and CIA is entirely too secretive in the United States. Understandably, as citizens, we do not have to know exactly what they are doing, but they could benefit from information volunteered. In closing, Klent Ervin, the former Inspector General of the United States Department of Homeland Security following gives a word of precaution in regards to governmental reform for prevention and emergency preparedness. Ervin stated, ts B o i the future and trying to plan too meticulously for it, we y bn nsg oe about s have likewise helped ourselves in the great game of nations, at least as a general rule. Too detailed, rigorous, mechanical, and centrally directed a plan can rob a nation of dynamism, creativity, spontaneity, and flexibility it needs to respond and adapt to ever changing internal and external events and circumstances (Ervin 21). Caudill 10 Works Cited
Ervin, Clark Kent. Open Target: Where America is Vulnerable to Attack. New York: Palgrace MacMillan, 2006. Hansen, Jon. Oklahoma Rescue. New York: Ballantine Books, 1995. Irving, Clive, ed. In Their Name. New York: Random House, 1995. Linenthal, Edward T. The Unfinished Bombing: Oklahoma City in American Memory. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Michel, Lou and Dan Herbeck. American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh & The Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: ReganBooks, 2001. Serrano, Richard A. One of Ours. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1998. Stickney, Brandon M. All-American Monster: The Unauthorized Biography of Timothy McVeigh. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1996. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course POLS 4309 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Fall '06 term at Dallas Baptist.
- Fall '06