Course Hero Logo

FOHA111 WEEK 2.pdf - FOHA111 PRELIMS 2021 LECTURE / BSPT...

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 18 pages.

FOHA111PRELIMS 2021LECTURE / BSPT 1-A-2CELL PARTS AND FUNCTIONSCELLNUCLEUSa large organelle that houses most of a cell’s DNA. Withinthe nucleus, each chromosome, a single molecule of DNAassociated with several proteins, contains thousands ofhereditary units called genes that control most aspects ofcellular structure and function.oNUCLEOLUSoNUCLEAR ENVELOPEoCHROMATINENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)SMOOTH ERoUnlike rough ER, smooth ER does not haveribosomes on the outer surfaces of its membrane.ocontainsuniqueenzymes,becauseitlacksribosomes,smoothER doesnotsynthesizeproteins, but it does synthesize fatty acids andsteroids, such as estrogens and testosterone.PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONSOUTLINEI.Cell Parts & FunctionoOrganellesII.HistologyoCell JunctionsoEpithelial TissueoConnective TissuesoMuscular TissueoNervous TissueIII.Components of the Integumentary System
ROUGH ERoProteins synthesized by ribosomes attached torough ER enter spaces within the ER for processingand sorting. In some cases, enzymes attach theproteins to carbohydrates to form glycoproteins.RIBOSOMESolarge and small subunits are made separately in thenucleolus, a spherical body inside the nucleus. Onceproduced, the large and small subunits exit thenucleus separately, then come together in thecytoplasm.GOLGI APPARATUSCISTERNAEooften curved, giving the Golgi complex a cuplikeshape. Most cells have several Golgi complexes,and Golgi complexes are more extensive in cells thatsecrete proteins, a clue to the organelle’s role in thecell.SECRETORY VESICLESodeliver the proteins to the plasma membrane, wherethey are discharged by exocytosis into theextracellular fluid.oi.e., certain pancreatic cells release the hormoneinsulin in this way.TRANSPORT VESICLEomove specific enzymes back toward the entry faceand move some partially modified proteins towardthe exit face.Materials are transported from the Rough ER to Golgi to thecell membrane by vesicles.Entry (cis) face accepts proteins from rough ER; medialcisternae form glycoproteins, glycolipids, and lipoproteins;exit (trans) face modifies molecules further, then sorts andpackages them for transport to their destinations.LYSOSOMEcontain as many as 60 kinds of powerful digestive andhydrolytic enzymes that can break down a wide variety ofmolecules once lysosomes fuse with vesicles formed duringendocytosis.Vesicle formed from Golgi complex; contains digestiveenzymes.HYDROLASE ENZYMEPINOCYTOSIS VS. PHAGOCYTOSISPEROXISOMEPeroxisomes, also called microbodies, contain severaloxidases (oxidative enzymes), enzymes that can oxidize(remove hydrogen atoms from) various organic substances.For instance, amino acids and fatty acids are oxidized inperoxisomes as part of normal metabolism.

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 18 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Fall
Professor
Marie Vonne Venus
Tags

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture