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Alkali MetalsMembers ofgroup 1 of the periodic table(first vertical column)-withexception of hydrogenofollowing elements are included:lithium (Li)sodium (Na)potassium (K)rubidium (Rb)caesium (Cs)francium (Fr)Alkali metal ions-belongs to thes-block metalsothey only haveone electron in theirouter shell( s type)-The chemistry of the metalsocharacterized by the loss of this selectron toform a monocationic ionM+results from the relativelylow ionization energy of thiselectron-theionization energyfor the removal of theouter electronodecreases as a result of theincreasing distanceof this electronfrom the nucleusIonization energy(IE)-the energy that isrequired to remove theouter electronof an atom or molecule-the tendency to lose the outer electron isdirectly correlated to the ionization energyothelower the ionization energy, theeasier the removal of the electronExtraction of alkali metals: an introduction toredox chemistrySodium-manufactured by theDowns' processotheelectrolysis of molten NaClrepresents the majorproduction process forsodium metalis also a minor source ofindustrial chlorineReduction–Oxidation Reactions-also calledredox reaction-all chemical reactions in whichatomschange their oxidation number-have many applicationsoindustrial processes (see Downs'process)obiological systemsex: oxidation of glucose inthe human body-are a family of reactions that consist ofoxidation and reduction reactions-there is no oxidation reaction without areduction reactionoare called half-reactions, as two half-reactions are needed to form aredox reactionoOxidationdescribes theloss ofelectrons (e−)oReductionis used for thegain ofelectrons (e−)-Oxidantothe atom or molecule that oxidizesanother compound and in turn isreduced itself-Reductantsoare molecules or atoms that reduceother compounds and as a result areoxidized themselves-there is always the oxidant–reductant pairpresentChemical behavior of alkali metals-have asilvery white appearanceoexcept caesium (golden yellow)-all soft metalsocan be cut with a knifeothe softness of the metalincreaseswithin the groupcaesium is the softestof thealkali metals-very reactive and oxidize in the airothe reactivityincreases within thegrouplithium have the lowestreactivitycaesium the highestoall alkali metals except lithium haveto be stored in mineral oil

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