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The Economy of Nature 7th edition Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 23 Global Conservation of Biodiversity Rick Relyea · Robert Ricklefs © 2014 by W. H. Freeman and Company
Chapter 23 concepts The value of biodiversity arises from social, economic, and ecological considerations. Although extinction is a natural process, its current rate is unprecedented. Human activities are causing the loss of biodiversity. Conservation efforts can slow or reverse declines in biodiversity. 1 2 3 4
Values of biodiversity 1 Intrinsic value of biodiversity: a focus on the inherent value of a species, not tied to any economic benefit. People who place intrinsic value on biodiversity feel religious, moral, or ethical obligations to preserve the world’s species. It is difficult to prioritize conservation efforts based on intrinsic values. Instrumental value of biodiversity: a focus on the economic value a species can provide (e.g., the value of lumber and crops). Many species remain undiscovered, so the value of species and ecosystems can be difficult to estimate. Benefits of diversity are estimated at $319 billion per year in the United States, and globally at $3 trillion to $54 trillion per year.
Values of biodiversity 1 Provisioning services: Benefits of biodiversity that humans use, including lumber, fur, meat, crops, water, and fiber. Example: The drug Taxol, which is used to fight cancer, was first derived from the Pacific yew tree and now has more than $1.5 billion in annual sales; more than 800 pharmaceutical chemicals have been derived from natural origins. Regulating services: Benefits of biodiversity that include climate regulation, flood control, and water pollution. Example: Wetlands absorb water and prevent flooding during rainy periods; wetland plants remove contaminants from water, which makes it more suitable for drinking.
Values of biodiversity 1 Cultural services: benefits of biodiversity that provide aesthetic, spiritual, or recreational value (e.g., hiking, camping). Example: Income from tourists can exceed what would be received from clearing a forest or from using land for housing or industry. In Palo Verde National Park in Costa Rica, beautiful tropical birds (e.g., the resplendent quetzal) and monkeys generate ecotourism. Supporting services: benefits of biodiversity that allow ecosystems to exist (e.g., primary production, soil formation, and nutrient cycling).
Chapter 23 concepts The value of biodiversity arises from social, economic, and ecological considerations. Although extinction is a natural process, its current rate is unprecedented. Human activities are causing the loss of biodiversity. Conservation efforts can slow or reverse declines in biodiversity. 1 2 3 4
Mass extinction events 2 1.3 million species have received Latin names; 15,000 new species are described each year.

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