Exam2 - Exam 2 Information Phylogenetics Principles of Life Chapter 16 Describe the hierarchy for Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus and

Exam2 - Exam 2 Information Phylogenetics Principles of Life...

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Exam 2 Information: Phylogenetics: “Principles of Life” Chapter 16 Describe the hierarchy for Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species- remember the order** Distinguish between the goals of taxonomy and systematics as fields of science. Taxonomy- naming/categorizing living organisms Systematics- traces phylogenies and evolutionary histories of species Explain the difference between analogous structures and homologous structures. o Analogous- two similar structures are found in organisms but they did NOT come from a common ancestor o Homologous- Come from the same evolutionary ancestor ex. Arm bones in a bird and bat both come from lobe fin fish ancestor Explain how homoplasies (analogous structures) and convergent evolution can produce incorrect phylogenetic trees. o Because the structures in question are similar and therefore may make two species appear to be linked together but, the traits did not evolve from a common ancestor. Explain the importance of synapomorphies in constructing accurate phylogenetic trees. o Synapomorphies are derived traits that are evidence of common ancestry Distinguish between an ancestral versus derived trait. o Ancestral- trait that was present in an ancestor o Derived- trait present (in newbie) in descendant Provide an example when 1) taxonomy does not accurately reflect phylogeny and 2) when taxonomy has been revised to better reflect phylogeny. o Taxonomy doesn’t accurately reflect phylogeny- The example we discussed in lecture was the case of birds and reptiles. Under the current taxonomy, reptiles (Class Reptilia) are a separate taxonomic class from birds (Class Aves) - this would make one believe that reptiles and birds evolved from a common ancestor, and evolved on separate evolutionary paths. In fact, birds evolved from a group of reptiles (the archosuars), so they are technically a type of reptile. If we wanted to make
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taxonomy reflect phylogeny, Aves would be a lower taxonomic group (such as Order), and be placed within the class Reptilia. o When Taxonomy has been revised to better reflect phylogeny- ex. Three Domains of Life; Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria HOWEVER it used to only be Eukarya and Bacteria :O Mindblown Properties of Populations ( “Elements of Ecology” Chapter 8) Describe how abiotic conditions, biotic conditions, and barriers can influence where a species will be present. o Abiotic- range of values (pH, minerals, sunlight, water) o Biotic- Food source, predators/competition, parasites o Barriers- can divide populations (ex. Mountains/floods wow) Explain how distributions, geographic ranges, and dispersion differ from each other. o Distributions- an ecosystem with individuals in a single population o Geographic Ranges- ALL POSSIBLE POPULATIONS o Dispersion- spatial patterns; how individuals in a population position themselves relative to each other Explain the difference between contiguous and non-contiguous ranges.
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