NEST101notes2 - :Ancient Mesopotamia...

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NEST 101 ­ Introduction to Near Eastern and Egyptian Archaeology ­ Lecture 12: Ancient Mesopotamia Wednesday, February 4, 2015 9:55 AM *After 1989, no body have been able to return to Iraq to do excavations ­> Incredibly dangerous Abu Salabikh Scraping the surface of the Tell directed by Nicholas Postgate ­ 1980s Top few cm of soil ­ expose all of the brickwork underneath Possible because all the sites were mud brick architecture Worked very well Gave us for the first time the idea of what the entire city would have looked like How houses were arranged Which area was for manufacturing? Areas of temples? Had to work very quickly Excavated houses in Area E Further digging to find the foundations of the walls Sumerians buried the dead right underneath their houses Baking pottery ­ upper chamber and underneath fire chamber ­ whole structure covered with some kind of roof Pots from Abu Salabikh burial for holding beers, food offerings Dig camp and site Living conditions very primitive Landscape Archaeology in the Near East Not only just the information of a single site but puts emphasize on how the sites are related to the surroundings Interested in two things: Natural surroundings: Forested, rivers, pasture lands, fields good for the cultivation of foods, climate, geomorphology, geology.. All the things that would answer to why these people chose to live here Human made landscape: Settlements themselves Canals Ancient dams Where the sites in competition or allied with one another? (Interrelationship between sites) Landscape archaeology became increasingly popular today Increasingly complex technology History of Landscape Archaeology Braidwood's Archaeological Team at Jarmo, 1950
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Robert Adams got his training here Robert Adams Became interested in the landscape of Southern Mesopotamia because he recognized that this was the first region in the world to experience the civilization of cities He wanted to know what kind of landscapes made and impacted the development in human society Wanted to know the origins of what stimulated the civilization "Heartland of Cities" (1981) Focused on Diyala (river flows into the Tigris River), central area (Nippur), Uruk in the South Pottery Interested in the pottery fragments because he knew pottery shapes and styles change very quickly over the course of time He knew which shape and style of pottery is from which time period ­ used for dating time Interested in the location of watercourses Spent a lot of time looking at aerial photographs and walking and looking for traces of ancient river streams and canals These watercourses are not in the same place they exist today ­ rivers have frequently changed Able to put together the watercourses along with the locations of sites and dating of the watercourses Distribution maps, showing changes in settlement patterns through time, S.
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