Words to Study:●Exclusive Powers: Powers that are specifically given to the states●Concurrent powers: Powers that the constitution gives to the national and stategovernments.●Commerce clause: A clause in the constitution that gives congress the power tosupervise/watch over business activities that cross state lines or affect more than onestate or nations.●Necessary and Proper clause: States that congress has the right to make all lawsnecessary and proper.●Implied powers: Powers that the federal government gets that are not necessarilymentioned in the Constitution. Ex.National laws outlawing discrimination in employment.●Police Powers: A state’s right to pass laws that protect the public’s health, safety, andwelfare.●Supremacy Clause: It states that federal laws are more important/have more power overstate laws and state constitutions.●Federalism: It is the American political system’s arrangement of powers andresponsibilities among—and ensuing relations between—national, state, and localgovernments.●State’s rights: Powers reserved clearly to the states.●Dual Federalism: A set of beliefs(doctrine) where national and state governments haveclearly separated domains of power. The national government is supreme but only inplaces where the constitution needs it to act.●Cooperative federalism: A system of government in which the federal and stategovernments work together to solve problems.●Competitive federalism: A system where responsibilities/tasks are assigned to either thenational government or the state government based on whether or not people thoughtthey’d best be able to complete the task.●Grants in aid: This is when the national government gave funds to states to administerprograms.●Categorical grants: a grant from the federal government to local/state governments withfar stricter regulations as to what the money can be used for.●Mandates: an order from the central government that all state and local governmentsmust obey.●Redistributive Policies: A policy that takes benefits(usually through taxes) from a groupof people and gives them to another.●Article 1 of the constitution: The U.S congress makes laws for the United states.●Intergovernmental lobby: An interest group made up of mayors, governors, state & localofficials who depend on federal funds.●Elastic Clause: One of the powers of congress that allows them to make any laws thatare necessary and proper in order for them to carry out their other powers.
3.1Summary:Checks and balances protect each level of government from being trespassed on by each other.The constitution gives the national government three types of powers, one of them is Articlewhich allows congress to act in other levels of government. The constitution gives the nationalgovernment a lot more free will and power than it does for states, for example states that cannotinterfere with foriegn relations, have their own military, have their own monetary system, maketreaties with other countries or states, etc. Someconcurrent powers