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bio Study Guide for final exam

bio Study Guide for final exam - Study Guide for Final Exam...

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Study Guide for Final Exam 1. Evolutionary Forces - mutation: random changes in genotype, avg rate 10-5 to 10-6 -natural selection: differential reproductive success, must have variation and heritability -genetic drift: random changes in allele frequencies -gene flow/migration: exchange of genes btw populations, movement of gametes -mating systems: random mating, inbreeding, mixed(outcrossing and selfing) * How would these forces affect the variation in a population? Increase? Decrease? Both? Increase variation: mutation, gene flow, random mating Decrease variation: natural selection, genetic drift, inbreeding, selfing 2. *What are some sources for generating genetic variation? Mutations, crossing over and recombination, * What is a cost of evolution/selection? Mortalities and reduced fertility -give an example: large birds endangered b/c low fecundity; bacteria resistant b/c high fecundity and fast reproduction rate -Phenotypic plasticity: range of phenotypes that can develop, depending on the environment *define GXE interaction: phenotypic variance from difference in effect of the environment on the expression of different genotypes *Give an example from class, make up some examples of your own: leaf of water- Crowfoot in water or air, cloned rabbits *What is a norm of reaction? The set of phenotypic expressions of a genotype under different environmental conditions *Draw a graph of reaction norms for both significant and insignificant GXE interactions. Significant GXE interactions start with the same genotype and create a variety of phenotypes in different environments. A straight line norm means there is no significant relationship.
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The following is an excerpt from the another edition of your text book about gxe interaction using Drosophila and their bristle number trait.
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