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WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?1.Management is a process, i.e. it is an activity that is ongoing and continuous; it is not something that is ever completely done.2.Management focuses on accomplishing organizational goals.3.Management entails the use of human and other organizational resources.Management occurs largely in organizations. An organization can be defined as a group of two or more people who band together deliberately in a system of relationships to accomplish a common purpose or common goals. There are many different kinds of organizations: business firms, military organizations, religious organizations (in fact, the Catholic Church is one of the oldest organizations in the world), social organizations, political organizations, etc., etc. Much of what we cover in this course can be applied to all of these different kinds of organizations. Management may differ from organization to organization; management also differs from level to level within a given organization.It is not adequate to just define the word “management”—because the word is used to refer to at least three different things. That is,1.Management: The Activity2.Management: Those people who have the official authority and responsibility in the organization.3.Management: The body of knowledge.Each of these is discussed below.Management: The ActivityThe activities that make up management have been a matter of debate for many years. There is, however, agreement that management activities include planning, organizing, directing/leading, and controlling. These activities were initially suggested—though in a somewhat different form—by Henri Fayol, a French mining engineer, who suggested that management entails planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling. Over the years, the coordinating and commanding functions have been combined into what is now referred to as directing/leading. Fayol also laid out 14 principles of administrative management (these will be discussed in the Evolution of Management Thought handout).Since management scholars now agree that planning, organizing, directing/leading, and controlling are the four basic management functions, it is necessary to make sure that we understand what each of these functions entails. Planningis the management function that entails determining organizational goals and the means for achieving those goals. Planning occurs at a number of different levels in organizations and in various time horizons. Strategic planning is a type of top-level planning decision that focuses on the long-term direction of the organization; strategic planning determines the mission (the basic purpose) of the organization