Lecture 7_NPB_101

Lecture 7_NPB_101 - Lecture7 OnlineHandouts: Lec7Notes...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture7 OnlineHandouts: Lec7Notes Announcements: RevisedHandoutsa8er lecture ReviewSynapse OrganizaHonofthe NervousSystem SensorySystems Reading(Recommended): Reading:Ch6(pg.181188) REV:SynapsePhysiology TransformpresynapHcAPintopostsynapHcEmchange. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) AxonAPdepolarizesAxonterminal. IncreaseCa+2Axonterminalpermeability. ReleasechemicalNeurotransmiTer. DiffusionofNTacrosssynapHccle8. NTbindstoreceptorsinpostsynapHcmembrane. PostsynapHcresponse. 2basictypesofresponseEPSP&IPSP. RemovalofNTfromsynapHccle8. FuncHonsoftheNervousSystem Input(Afferent) IntegraHon TransduceinformaHon(convertsHmuliintoelectrical signal) CommunicaHon(transferinformaHon) ProcessingandintegraHonofsignals Output(Efferent) GeneraHonofresponsesandcontrolofacHviHes HomeostaHcRegulaHon HighercogniHvefuncHon NervousSystemOrganizaHon 2CelltypesNeurons(funcHonal;1012)&Glia(support) 2Primarydivisions Centralnervoussystem(CNS) Consistsofbrainandspinalcord Peripheralnervoussystem(PNS) Afferentdivision(Input) CarriesinformaHontotheCNS Efferentdivision(Output) CarriesinformaHonawayfromCNStoeffectororgans(musclesandglands) Dividedinto SomaHcnervoussystem Autonomicnervoussystem NervousSystemOrganizaHon OUTPUT INPUT Fig.51,pg.132 TheCentralNervousSystem(CNS) &(some)CorHcalFuncHons TOP (DORSAL) Motor Sensory Personality FRONT (ROSTRAL) Vision BACK (CAUDAL) Speech Hearing EmoFon LocomoFon Autonomic RegulaFon Fig.58,pg.143(SeealsoFig.59a,pg.144) BOTTOM (VENTRAL) TheCNS(MiddleSagiTalView) Brain component Cerebral cortex Basal nuclei (lateral to thalamus) Basal nuclei Thalamus (medial) Cerebral cortex Thalamus Hypothalamus Cerebellum Hypothalamus Cerebellum Midbrain Brain stem Pons Medulla Spinal cord Brain stem (midbrain, pons, and medulla) Table52,pg.140(seealsoFig.515,pg.153) TheBrain(CoronalView) Fig.515a,pg.152 HumansHave31PairsofSpinalNerves Cervical cord Cervical nerves Vertebrae Thoracic cord Thoracic nerves Lumbar cord Sacral cord Lumbar nerves Cauda equina Sacral nerves Coccygeal nerve Fig.525,pg.169 OrganizaHonofSpinalNerves Cell body of efferent neuron Cell body of afferent neuron White matter Gray matter Interneuron Dorsal root Dorsal root ganglion Efferent fiber From receptors To effectors Ventral root Spinal nerve Fig.526,pg.170 TransverseSecHonoftheSpinalCord GrayMaIer TOP (DORSAL) WhiteMaIer INPUT Dorsal horn (cell bodies of interneurons on which afferent neurons terminate) Central canal Lateral horn (cell bodies of autonomic efferent nerve fibers) Ventral horn (cell bodies of somatic efferent neurons) OUTPUT BOTTOM (VENTRAL) Fig.529,pg.173 "Nothingisinthemindthatdoesnot passthroughthesenses" Aristotle SensorySystems "Sensa'onisanabstrac'on,nota replica'onoftherealworld" VernonMountcastle PercepHon ConsciousinterpretaHonofexternalworld derivedfromsensoryinput Sensoryinputdoesnotgivetruereality percepHon.Why? Humanshavereceptorsthatdetectonlyalimited numberofexisHngenergyforms Wedon'tperceiveorencodeeverything InformaHonchannelsinourbrainsarenothigh fidelityrecorders TransducFoninnotlinear(1:1) Cerebralcortexfurthermanipulatesthedata SensaHonisanAbstracHonofReality Threshold Response SaturaFon SFmulus CNSManipulaHon:WhatYouPerceive? Fig.61&62,pg.182 FuncHonalClassesofNeurons Afferentneurons(Receptors;Input) InformCNSaboutcondiHonsinboththeexternaland internalenvironment FoundenHrelywithinCNS Responsiblefor Interneurons(99%ofneurons;Processing) Efferentneurons(Output) IntegraHngafferentinformaHonandformulaHnganefferent response HighermentalfuncHonsassociatedwiththe"mind" CarryinstrucHonsfromCNStoeffectororgans musclesandglands FuncHonalClassesofNeurons INPUT OUTPUT Fig.52,pg.133(seealsoFig.64,pg.185) ...
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