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PSY2020_CHAPTER11

PSY2020_CHAPTER11 - Chapter 11 Human Development Across the...

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Chapter 11: Human Development Across the Life Span Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development  3 phases o germinal stage = first 2 weeks conception, implantation, formation of placenta o embryonic stage = 2 weeks – 2 months formation of vital organs and systems o fetal stage = 2 months – birth bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells multiply age of viability Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development Maternal nutrition o Malnutrition linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological problems,  and psychopathology Maternal drug use o Tobacco, alcohol, prescription, and recreational drugs o Fetal alcohol syndrome  Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development o Maternal illness o Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza o Prenatal health care o Prevention through guidance  The Childhood Years: Motor Development o Motor development refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for  physical activites o Basic Principles o Cephalocaudal trend – head to foot o Proximodistal trend – center-outward o Maturation – gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint o Developmental norms – median age o Cultural variations – Different cultures begin active efforts to train their children different  activites usually depending on area, culture, etc.  o This demonstrates environmental influences on development which can slow or  accelerate this.  Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament o Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional designs o In a longitudinal design, investigators observe one group of participants  repeatedly over a period of time o In a cross-sectional design investigators compare groups of participants of  differing age a single point in time. o Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1970) o 3 basic temperamental styles were apparent in most of the children Easy – 40%
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Slow-to-warm-up – 15% Difficult – 10% Mixed – 35% Temperament became stable over time Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament o Kagan & Snidman (1991) o Inhibited vs. uninhibited temperament o Inhibited – 15 - 20% o Uninhibited – 25 - 30% o Stable over time, genetically based   Early Emotional Development: Attachment o Separation anxiety o Ainsworth (1979) o The strange situation and patterns of attachment o 3 Types of Infant-Mother Attachment o Secure Infants using their mother as a secure base to venture out into the world  They’re comfortable when their mother is present, are visibly upset when  she’s gone, and are quickly calmed when she returns o Anxious-ambivalent Anxious when mother is around, protest excessively when she leaves, 
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