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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11: Human Development Across the Life Span Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development 3 phases o germinal stage = first 2 weeks conception, implantation, formation of placenta o embryonic stage = 2 weeks 2 months formation of vital organs and systems o fetal stage = 2 months birth bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells multiply age of viability Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development Maternal nutrition o Malnutrition linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological problems, and psychopathology Maternal drug use o Tobacco, alcohol, prescription, and recreational drugs o Fetal alcohol syndrome Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development o Maternal illness o Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza o Prenatal health care o Prevention through guidance The Childhood Years: Motor Development o Motor development refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activites o Basic Principles o Cephalocaudal trend head to foot o Proximodistal trend center-outward o Maturation gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint o Developmental norms median age o Cultural variations Different cultures begin active efforts to train their children different activites usually depending on area, culture, etc. o This demonstrates environmental influences on development which can slow or accelerate this. Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament o Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional designs o In a longitudinal design, investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time o In a cross-sectional design investigators compare groups of participants of differing age a single point in time. o Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1970) o 3 basic temperamental styles were apparent in most of the children Easy 40% Slow-to-warm-up 15% Difficult 10% Mixed 35% Temperament became stable over time Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament o Kagan & Snidman (1991) o Inhibited vs. uninhibited temperament o Inhibited 15 - 20% o Uninhibited 25 - 30% o Stable over time, genetically based Early Emotional Development: Attachment o Separation anxiety o Ainsworth (1979) o The strange situation and patterns of attachment o 3 Types of Infant-Mother Attachment o Secure Infants using their mother as a secure base to venture out into the world Theyre comfortable when their mother is present, are visibly upset when shes gone, and are quickly calmed when she returns o Anxious-ambivalent Anxious when mother is around, protest excessively when she leaves,...
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- Fall '07