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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders Abnormal Behavior • The medical model - The view that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease • What is abnormal behavior? o Deviant – Personality which deviates from what society deems acceptable Norm vary from culture to culture People who deviate from these norms, for example a male cross dressers, are often labeled with having a disorder o Maladaptive – People whose everyday adaptive behavior is impaired This seems to be the key criterion for substance use disorders o Causing personal distress – Frequently, the diagnosis of a psychological disorder is basedon the individual’s report of great personal distress Usually the criterion met by people who have anxiety or depression disorders o A continuum of normal/abnormal Prevalence, Causes, and Course • Epidemiology - The study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population • Prevalence - The percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period • Lifetime prevalence – The prevalence of a disorder at any point in a persons lifetime • Diagnosis - Distinguishing one illness from another • Etiology - The apparent causation and developmental history of an illness • Prognosis - A forecast about the probable course of an illness Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders • American Psychiatric Association • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – 4th ed. (DSM - 4) Five Axes • Axis I – Clinical Syndromes, including major mental disorders, as well as developmental and learning disorders o Disorders first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, Organic mental disorders, Substance related disorders. Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, Mood disorders, Anxiety disorders, Somatoform disorders, Dissociative disorders, Sexual and gender-identity disorders, Eating disorders • Axis II – Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation o Underlying pervasive or personality conditions, as well as mental retardation • Axis III – General Medical Conditions (Acute medical conditions and Physical disorders) o Diabetes, Arthritis, Hemophilia • Axis IV – Psychosocial and Environmental Problems contributing to the disorder o A psychosocial or environmental problem may be a negative life event, and environmental difficulty or deficiency, a familial or other interpersonal stress, an inadequacy of social support or personal resources, or another problem that describes the context in which a person’s difficulties have developed....
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSY psy2020 taught by Professor Mariashpurik during the Fall '07 term at FIU.
- Fall '07