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B38finalstudyguide - BIO SCI 38 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE I...

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BIO SCI 38 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE I. Alzheimer’s Disease ( AD ) Clinical characteristics o Minor forgetfulness which leads to a failure in visual/spatial orientation, forming coherent sentences with language, abstract thinking, judgment, and executive function flexibility, leading to general deterioration of the brain and death. Diagnosis o Declarative Episodic memories are lost o Semantic memory is lost o Short term memory begins to fragment Together, these lead to the tentative diagnosis. Neuropathological hallmarks unique to AD o Loss of neurons Brain weight Reduced by 30-40% Mostly in Frontal/Temporal lobes: Hippocampus ( HC ) and Amygdala Basil Forebrain Colonergic System ( BFC ): Nucleus Basalis of Meynert ( NBM ) – Cortex == first to show defeneration. Medial Septal Area == Ach (Adenylcholine) loss. Locus Coeruleus & Raphe Loss of glutamatergic in cortex Pattern of neuron fiber loss Dendrites whither and get severed. Ventricular enlargement Due to so much brain mass lost, the ventricles enlarge and are filled with more cerebrospinal fluid. o Amyloid Plaques ( AP ) & Neurofibrillary tangles ( NFT ) Pattern of distribution & how it differs from normal deposition Most severe in pathology, less in primary sensory areas. o HC Amygdla Diencephalon Locus Coerleus Raphe BFC Amyloid plaques – Extracellular deposits of ß-amyloid ( ) peptide filaments Amyloid precursor protein ( APP ) o When being cleaved what leads to the formation of insoluble ß amyloid? ß-secretase cleaves APP, releasing a large secreted derivative (sAPPß) and a C-terminal fragment (CTFß) that can be further cleaved by gamma- secretase to form Aß, released into the extracellular region. o Where is APP gene located? Why is this significant w/
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regards to Down’s syndrome? Usually in membrane of cells, by Chromosome 21. (Same chromosome Down syndrome gene is found) ß amyloid peptide o Split off from APP ß amyloid diffusible ligand? (Amyloid beta-Derived Diffusible Ligand, or ADDL ) o Derived from APP, but diffuses instead of aggregating into plaques. o Attach to binding sites on dendrites and disrupts signaling. o Huge quantities in post-mortem AD brains, non-AD = virtually free. o May be used to diagnose ( dx ) AD Neurofibrillary tangles Tau – intraneuronal masses of abnormal, insoluble protein. o Ususal role that tau plays in cytoskeleton?
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