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Guiding Questions: Foundations of Science Module #6 Science un-tethered: Darwin and his contemporaries Overview: In this section of the course we will consider the science which occurred before and during Darwin’s time, you will see science shift from its Christian moorings to a more man-centered mechanistic position. You will also see that many of Darwin’s views were not necessarily original; in many ways it appears that Darwin was fortunate to to be at the right place at the right time. Although science has done much good and brought us stunning technologies, unfortunately today it is dominated by a Godless mechanistic view, and Darwin and his contemporaries had much to do with the propagation of this view. Reading: Gribben - chapter 6 (203-237), and chapters 7-9 Pearcey - chapter 5 Gribbin, chapter 6, (203-207) 1 John Ray wrote a book about fish which was attributed to whom? Ray has sometimes been represented as the biological equivalent of ____________________________? Ray went to what college when he was 16? Ray’s book about fish was attributed to Francis Willughby. Ray was sometimes seen as a biological equivalent to Newton. He attended Cambridge University. 2 Ray was affiliated with a strict Christian group, important also to American history –this group was the___________________________? Ray turned his attention to what biological discipline? Ray was affiliated with the Puritans. Ray turned his attention toward botany. 3 Ray and his associates were the first ones to suggest that classification schemes of plants and animals must take into account what factors? Classification should take into account the factors of the environment of the species. 4 Ray published books on birds and fishes but who did he assign as authors of these texts? How many plants were documented in his monumental volume on the “history of plants”? Ray assigned Willughby as the author of the texts. He catalogued more than 18,000 species of plants in his book. 5 How did Ray establish the species concept? How did he use biblical principles to support the species concept? He established the concept of species based upon the ability of the subjects to breed animals of the same species. In other words species propagate according to their kinds, just as described in the Bible. 6 What famous taxonomist drew heavily on Ray’s work to establish his own work? What was Ray’s views of fossils? Linnaeus drew heavily from Ray’s work. Ray was one of the first to recognize that fossils were the remains of once living organisms.
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7 Linnaeus most famous text was Systema Naturae . What did he document in this text? What is the binomial classification system? (we still use this today). He gave descriptions of 7700 species of plants and 4400 species of animals. The binomial
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course LS 200 taught by Professor Dr.fraisier during the Spring '08 term at The Mater's University.

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