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INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY AUGUSTINE in Stumpf Study Guide What was Augustine's personal history? (mother Monica, two mistresses, background in rhetoric and philosophy). What was Augustine's philosophical journey? (age 19 read Hortiansius, then turned to Monichaeons, turned to Skepticism, met bishop of Milan who strongly influenced him and eventually turned to neo-Platonism What influence did Augustine have on medieval Christian theology and philosophy in the Middle ages? [131] (said it was impossible for theology and Christianity to exist apart from each other.) With what "Christian" thinker did Augustine have the greatest controversy? What was it about? [132-3; Pelagius. ...] (Pelagius claimed that man can achieve salvation by his own will. Augustine disagreed and said it was by grace) How did Augustine overcome skepticism? What could he be sure of? [133] (He showed first that human reason was not certain. Next he showed that human nature was certain to contradict itself. And finally he knew two absolutes could not both be absolute). How did Augustine differ from Descartes? [133] (Unlike Descartes he constructed an argument based on doubt to refute skepticism). When we sense an object, we not only sense it be we also do what? [134; We make a judgement; sense perception points beyond its object] What two types of objects are there? [135; objects sensed by the bodily sense, and objects grasped by the mind] Which things can we be more certain about, objects of sense or objects of the mind? (The object of sense is more certain).
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