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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 11 B-183 CHAPTER 11 PROJECT ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION Answers to Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions 1. Forecasting risk is the risk that a poor decision is made because of errors in projected cash flows. The danger is greatest with a new product because the cash flows are probably harder to predict. 2. With a sensitivity analysis, one variable is examined over a broad range of values. With a scenario analysis, all variables are examined for a limited range of values. 3. It is true that if average revenue is less than average cost, the firm is losing money. This much of the statement is therefore correct. At the margin, however, accepting a project with marginal revenue in excess of its marginal cost clearly acts to increase operating cash flow. 4. It makes wages and salaries a fixed cost, driving up operating leverage. 5. Fixed costs are relatively high because airlines are relatively capital intensive (and airplanes are expensive). Skilled employees such as pilots and mechanics mean relatively high wages which, because of union agreements, are relatively fixed. Maintenance expenses are significant and relatively fixed as well. 6. From the shareholder perspective, the financial break-even point is the most important. A project can exceed the accounting and cash break-even points but still be below the financial break-even point. This causes a reduction in shareholder (your) wealth. 7. The project will reach the cash break-even first, the accounting break-even next and finally the financial break-even. For a project with an initial investment and sales after, this ordering will always apply. The cash break-even is achieved first since it excludes depreciation. The accounting break-even is next since it includes depreciation. Finally, the financial break-even, which includes the time value of money, is achieved. 8. Soft capital rationing implies that the firm as a whole isn’t short of capital, but the division or project does not have the necessary capital. The implication is that the firm is passing up positive NPV projects. With hard capital rationing the firm is unable to raise capital for a project under any circumstances. Probably the most common reason for hard capital rationing is financial distress, meaning bankruptcy is a possibility. 9. The implication is that they will face hard capital rationing. B-184 SOLUTIONS Solutions to Questions and Problems NOTE: All end of chapter problems were solved using a spreadsheet. Many problems require multiple steps. Due to space and readability constraints, when these intermediate steps are included in this solutions manual, rounding may appear to have occurred. However, the final answer for each problem is found without rounding during any step in the problem....
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- Fall '07