Logic Study Guide

Logic Study Guide - Introduction to philosophy Study...

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Introduction to philosophy  Study Guide Logic and Critical Thinking What logic deals with. [ It deals with the relation between the premises and the  conclusion.    Generally, logic cannot tell you whether the premises are in fact  true or not that is known either by common knowledge or consulting someone  who has expert knowledge.] The difference between a real and an apparent dispute. [ A dispute is real only  when one party believes a certain statement is true while the other believes that  statement is false.    A verbal dispute occurs whenever one party believes a  statement is true, while the other party believes  a different statement is false .]  How do you solve an apparent dispute? [ By a reexamination of the argument  itself.] What is the principle of non-contradiction?    Identity?  Excluded Middle? There is nothing between true and false. What is the difference between induction and deduction with regard to  certainty? [ Deduction offers complete proof; induction a level of certainty] What is the difference between induction and deduction with regard to the  relationship between the premises and the conclusion? [ In a (sound) deductive  argument, all the information needed to draw the conclusion is included in the  premises; in an inductive argument it is not.    So the conclusion of a deductive  argument does not go beyond the premises, but the conclusion of an inductive  argument does (that is why induction is so useful and powerful but also less  certain.] Be sure you can tell the difference between inductive and deductive arguments  when given examples of each.       What is a sound deductive argument? [ One with valid logic and true  premises.]  What is the case with the conclusion of a sound deductive argument? [ It must  be true that is the power of deduction.] What is the difference between truth and validity? [ Propositions (i.e.,  statements about the world) are true or false; arguments are valid or invalid.    Normally, deductive arguments are considered valid or invalid; inductive  arguments are considered strong or weak.]
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What is a  persuasive definition? Seek to change the hearer’s ideas about a  word.    A stipulative?   Tells how a writer or speaker intends to use a certain  word.  A denotative?   Defining by giving an example.  Connotative? a) shows the properties shared by all those objects, and only those objects. b) means to bring to mind
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course P 311 taught by Professor Morley during the Fall '07 term at Masters CA.

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Logic Study Guide - Introduction to philosophy Study...

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