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COMM103FinalStudyGuide - Pay attention to 5 6 and 17...

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Pay attention to 5, 6 and 17 Chapter 3 1. Understand perception and its three steps Perception: The process of making meaning from environmental experiences Three steps: 1. Selection- the process of paying attention to a certain stimulus; a. How selection occurs: when unusual things stand out, repetition or how frequently you are exposed to a stimulus, the intensity of a stimulus affects how much you take notice of it b. Reticular formation: Part of the brain that helps you focus on certain stimuli while ignoring others. (ie: you can focus on what your friend is saying in a loud, noisy coffee shop.) 2. Organization- the process of categorizing information that has been selected for attention 3. Interpretation- the process of assigning meaning to information that has been selected for attention and organized 2. Understand the influences on perception a. Cultures and co-cultures - Individualistic and Collectivist b. Stereotypes - generalization about a group or category of people that is applied to individual members of that group c. Primacy effect - the tendency to emphasize the first impression over later impressions when forming a perception d. Recency effect - the tendency to emphasize the most recent impression over earlier impressions when forming a perception e. Perceptual sets - a person’s predisposition to perceive only what he or she wants or expects to perceive (I’ll see it when I believe it) 3. Understand how we explain our perceptions to others 1. Understand attribution - an explanation for an observed behavior i. Three most important dimensions of attribution: 1. Locus: Refers to where the cause of a behavior is “located,” whether inside or outside ourselves. (sounds like “location”) 2. Stability: Refers to whether the cause of a behavior is stable or unstable. 3. Controllability: Causes for behavior vary in how controllable they are. 2. Understand the two common attribution errors i. Self-serving bias - the tendency to attribute one’s successes to stable internal causes and one’s failures to unstable external causes ii. Fundamental attribution error - the tendency to attribute others’ behaviors to internal rather than external causes 4. Know self-concept: the set of perceptions a person has about who he or she is; aka identity 5. Know the Johari Window model of self-disclosure
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Open: characteristics known to self and to others; sex, names, hobbies, major, Hidden: characteristics that you know about yourself but choose not to reveal to others (emotional insecurities or traumas from your past) Blind: dimensions of our self concept of which we may be unaware (others might see us as impatient or moody even though we don't see it Unknown: aspects of ourselves not known to us or others (what kind of parent you will be) 6. Understand what self-monitoring is and how it impacts the perception process a. Self-monitoring : an awareness of how you look and sound and how your behavior is affecting those around you; how you make an impression b. Impacts : i. high self-monitors
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