Chromosome Variation Chromosome Mutations inculde: variations in chromosome number; variations in chromosome structure; individual chromosome lose/gain parts; the sequence of genes within a chromosome may become altered; or whole chromosomes can be lost or gained. Chromosome Morphology • each functional chromosome has a centromere where spindle fibers attach and two telomeres to stabilize the chromosome o Metacentric: the centromere is located apporximately in the middle so that the chromosome has two arms of equal length o Submetacentric: the centromere is displaced toward one end that creates a long arm and a short arm o Acrocentric: the centromere is near one end, producing a long arm and a knob (satellite) at the other o Telocentric: the centromere is at or very near the end of the chromosome • Karyotype: the complete set of chromosomes that an organism posseses Types of Chromosome Mutations • Chromosome rearrangements: Alter the structure of chromosomes 1. Duplications: a mutation in which part of the crhomosome has been
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