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study guide - D Soc 101 Prelim II Study Guide Core Concepts...

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D Soc 101: Prelim II Study Guide Core Concepts How social position affects health : although the why is not completely understood, there is a strong relation between an individual’s position in status hierarchy and health/life expectancy. Jean-Pierre Roy identifies these paths in terms of social responses such as shame and fear triggering hormonal and neurological physiological systems that can degrade resistance to disease and premature death. People need to feel in control of their lives. The more control people feel they have, the longer the tend to live. Double-diamond class structure : Perrucci and Wysong; new American class structure; there is no middle class and relations between the “super class” of owners and the “new working class” conflict each other; their interests don’t relate; constantly battling; classes are defined in terms of quantity of the four types of “generative capital”: consumption, investment, skill, and social capital Gender: social categories associated with sexual dimorphism Family: a small kinship-structured group with the key function of nurturing socialization of the newborn Marriage: a formal commitment between a couple to maintain a long-term relationship involving specific rights and duties toward one another and toward their children; integral to the American Dream; financial advisors: get married, stay married; vehicle for moral and financial goals (social being social consciousness) Physiological relationship demonstrated by biological research: the brain determines behavior, and behavior determines the brain Life expectancy: the mathematical expectation of life for an individual at some gage, given the existing risk of death in the society at the time. Life expectancy is computed using a life table A fundamental cause persists over time, even though proximal conditions change; e.g., eating sugar used to be associated with good health because only the rich could afford sugar; now high sugar diet associated with poverty/bad health Social stratification : how society distributes its rewards. Social class : groups that share common positions in the stratification order based upon ownership and control relationships (e.g., owners of capital, laborers, marketable skills, market power). Race is a set of hierarchical categories assigned to individuals on the basis of physical characteristics. Gender : concerns the psychological, social, and cultural differences between males and females; refers to the cultural ideas that construct images and expectations of females and males; different from sex, whose scope is limited to biological differences such as reproductive function and secondary characteristics such as body hair and breast development; gender is usually defined around ideas about male and female personality traits and behavioral tendencies that take the form of opposites (taken as a set of traits and tendencies, these make up femininity and masculinity )
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