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Psychology Study Guide 2

Psychology Study Guide 2 - Psychology Study Guide 2 Module...

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Psychology Study Guide 2 Module 19 Can anyone be hypnotized? To some extent, nearly everyone is hypnotizable. The characteristics of highly hypnotizable people frequently become deeply absorbed in imaginative activities. Typically, they have rich fantasy lives and easily become absorbed in the imaginary events of a novel or movie. Hypnosis cannot accurately recall lost events from the brain, as hypnotically refreshed memories combine fact with fiction. Can hypnosis force people to do things they wouldn’t normally do? o Any authorative person in a legitimate context can induce people- hypnotized or not-to perform some unlikely acts. Yes, hypnosis can relieve pain. Hypnosis alleviates pain by dissociating the pain sensation from conscious awareness, or merely by focusing attention on other things. Module 21 Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. Humans learn by association. By linking two events that occur close together, humans learn by associative learning. Pavlov’s Experiment: Pavlov presented a neutral stimulus (a tone) just before an unconditioned stimulus (food in mouth). The neural stimulus then became a conditioned stimulus, producing a conditioned response. o Unconditioned Stimulus- in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response. In the study case the unconditioned stimulus would be the food in mouth Food in the mouth automatically, unconditionally, triggers a dog’s salivary reflex. Thus Pavlov called the food stimulus an unconditioned stimulus. o Unconditioned Response- in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth. In the study case the unconditioned response would be the salivation in the mouth because salivation in response to food in the mouth was unlearned. o Conditioned response- in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus. In the study case the conditioned response is the salivating when a tone is played. o Conditioned stimulus- in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
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In the study case, the conditioned stimulus is the tone, which when is played triggers the CR. How might classical conditioning explain heroin overdose when addicts change their “using” environment?
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