(1)Food science=formulation of food at physical, chemical, and biochemical. App of principles of sc to acquire new knowledge. Food technology=using info toengineer equipment in food industry. Nutrition=what we absorb/our reaction. Nicholas AppertCanning, hermetic seal, heat processing. BirdseyeFlash freezingwith arctic fish. Sugar sub: no raise in insulin. Fat sub: replace fat to lower calories. Canada’s food system: highest expenditure on meats, consumption decreasing. Primary agriculturefrom when its grown to when it leaves the gate, then its food science until it reaches the table. Processing=food science. Apple processingprocesses, sold fresh, or put in controlled atmosphere(CA)storage lower senescence, extend life (increase CO2, decrease N2). Trends: less processed, red meat, calorie intake/more variety, healthy, ethnic, packaged, on the go. (2) Colloidal dispersions=particles of 1 substance disperse (not dissolve) into another. Dispersedphase (internal); Continuousphase (external). Emulsion: 2 ormore unblendable liquids oil in water (milk) vs. water in oil (butter). 1. Sol=solid+liquid (starches, protein). 2. Emulsion=liquid+liquid (milk). 3. Solidemulsion=liquid+solid (butter). 4. Gel=liquid+solid (pectin/gelatin gels). 5. Foam=gas+liquid (whipped cream). 6. Solid foam=gas+solid (ice cream,bread).Components: Carbs. Monosacsimple (glucose ,fructose, galactose. Disac: sucr(fruc + gluc) –fruits, lact(gluc +galac) –malt(gluc + gluc) –high fructose corn syrup (drinks). (hygroscopic=sugar pick up moisture). Polysac: for thickness. Agar/alginates/carrageenan/cellulose/gum Arabic/pectin/xanthan gum/starch. Retrogradation=starch gell lose water holding capcity (stale bread in fridge). Fats: triglycerides, FAs, saturated=no double cc bonds. Proteins: animo acids, enzymes. Water: 1. Free=water easily extracted from food. 2. Bound=not easy extract. Aw(water activity): changes with: removing water, dehydration, freezing. Minor components:1. Organic acids(tartness,pH). Malic(apples), citric(fruits), tartaric(grapes), lactic (yogurt,cheese,olives,sauerkraut). 2. Colours3. Aroma/taste=flavour. Aroma=volatile, fat sol. Taste=non-vol, water sol 4. Vits/Minerals(no effect on flavour, low concen) Water sol(C,B,folic acid),fat sol(A,D,E,K), minerals, food additives. (3)-Fat subs: A.Protein(microparticulation=micro dispers) simplesse (fat sub) –soy/milk, e.g. icecream, salad dressing, mayo B.Carbs–imitate tastes/less cal. –maltodextrins (maltrin) –corn/potato/wheat –e.g. margarine/processed meat C.Fat–less cal., -olestra (olean) –withstand high temp. (frying) -0 cal, fat-sol vitamins added –e.g. crackers (*Canada not approved). Sugar subs: A. low-cal–Aspartame-doesn’t increase blood glucose/insulin, can’t be used in baking, best before date (acidified drinks/dessert/cereal) 2. Sugar-alcohols (fruits) –bulk, cool-refreshing sensation in gum/toothpaste, no tooth decay/blood glucose/insulin B.