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BioMI290 DNA notes

BioMI290 DNA notes - 1928 Griffith transformation of...

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1928 – Griffith : transformation of pneumococcus ( Streptococcus pneumoniae ) in mice Smooth (S) = virulent, capsular polysaccharide (“virulence factor”) Rough (R) = avirulent, lack capsular polysaccharide Heat-killed smooth + living rough = kills mouse; “transforming principle” = gene 1944 – Avery, MacLeod, McCarty : purified “ transforming principle” ( transformation ) using detergent, ether, alcohol “principle” not destroyed by protease/RNAse “principle” destroyed by DNAse identified DNA as “principle” in cell extracts 1949 – Chargaff : A-T, G-C proportion of DNA bases 1952 – Hershey and Chase : support Avery’s theory; using E.coli bacteriophage DNA alone is responsible for prod. new bacteriophage 1953 – Watson and Crick : DNA = double helix RNA = more variable than DNA important for RNA evolution; “RNA world” DNA = 5’P, 3’OH, phosphodiester bonds link 5’ carbon and 3’ carbon antiparallel strands linked by H-bonds compacted inside E.coli by histone-like DNA-binding proteins; E.coli
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