Lecture 5 - Perception.pptx - PERCEPTION. V Introduction to...

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PERCEPTION. VIntroduction toPsychology.By Mariam Kamran1
AIMS AND OBJECTIVESNature of PerceptionSelective AttentionStages of PerceptionFactors of Perception: Subjective,Objective and SocialTypes of PerceptionPerceptual Constancy2
OVERVIEW – KEY CONCEPTSPerception refers to the set of processes we use to make sense ofthe different stimuli we’re presented with. Our perceptions arebased on how we interpret different sensations.The perceptual process begins with receiving stimuli from theenvironment and ends with our interpretation of those stimuli. Thisprocess is typically unconscious and happens hundreds ofthousands of times a day.When we attend to or select one specific thing in our environment,it becomes the attended stimulus.Organization of stimuli happens by way of neural processes; thisstarts with our sensory receptors (touch, taste, smell, sight, andhearing), and is transmitted to our brains, where we organize theinformation we receive.After we receive and organize stimuli, we can interpret thosestimuli, which simply means that we take the information and turnit into something that we can categorize.3
NATURE OF PERCEPTIONPerception refers to the set of processes we use to make sense ofall the stimuli we encounter in the environment.Perception enables us to navigate the world and to make decisionsabout everything, from which T-shirt to wear or how fast to runaway from a bear.Whether or not we know it, we selectively attend to different thingsin our environment. Our brains simply don’t have the capacity toattend to every single detail in the world around us.Optical illusions highlight this tendency. Have you ever looked at anoptical illusion and seen one thing, while a friend sees somethingcompletely different?Our brains engage in a three-step process when presented withstimuli: selection, organization, and interpretation.For example, Rubin’s vase.4
RUBIN’S VASERubin’s Vase: Rubin’s Vase is apopular optical illusion used toillustrate differences in perception ofstimuli.Some individuals see a vase becausethey attend to the black part of theimage, while some individuals see twofaces because they attend to thewhite parts of the image.Most people can see both, but onlyone at a time, depending on theprocesses described above.All stages of the perception processoften happen unconsciously and inless than a second.5
SENSATION VS PERCEPTIONDifference between sensation and perceptionSensation:The stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmission ofsensory information to the central nervous system.Perception:The process by which sensations are organized into an innerrepresentation of the world.6
STAGES OF PERCEPTIONThe perception process has three stages:Sensory stimulationand selection, organization, and interpretation.

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Auditory Perceptual Constancies

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