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study guide 1

study guide 1 - Chapter 1 1 What are cottage industries and...

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Chapter 1 1) What are cottage industries and what happened to them in the late 19 th century? a. Small cottage industries had skilled workers accomplishing large tastks from start to finish. This disappeared in the late 19 th century because of the industrial revolution which led to the organization of larger groups of people in factory and assembly lines. 2) According to the theories of Fayol, Weber, and Taylor, what makes organizations like machines? Know the meanings for each of the terms – specialization, standardization, replaceability, and predictable. a. They are like machines because of specialization, standardization, replaceablility, and predictability. i. Specialization – every part of the machine has a certain function, aka division of labor. ii. Standardization —the parts in one machine are the same as parts in similar machines iii. Replaceability – if something breaks or quits, it can be easily replaced iv. Predictable—there are rules to how a machine is put together and how it operates. When something breaks, there is only a finite amount of things that could be wrong with it 3) According to Fayol’s theory of classical management, what are the six principles of organizational structure? Principles of organizational power? Principles or organizational reward? Principles of organizational attitude? a. Scalar chain – an organization should be arranged in a strict vertical hierarchy and that communication should be largely limited to this vertical flow; unity of command – an employee should receive orders regarding a particular task from only one supervisor; unity of direction – activities having similar goals should be placed under a single supervisor; division of labor – work can best be accomplished if employees are assigned to a limited umber of specialized tasks. Order – there should be appointed places for each employee and task within the organization. Span of control – managers will be most effective if they have control of a limited number of employees. b. Principles of organizational power – centralization, authority and responsibility, discipline c. Principles of organizational reward – remuneration of personnel, equity, tenure stability d. Principles of organizational attitude – subordination of individual interest of general interest, initiative, esprit de corps 4) According to Max Weber’s classical theory, specifically the functioning of authority, what are the three types of authority described? a. Traditional authority ( legitimate authority) – power based on long standing beliefs about who should have control and is often vested in particular positions within an organizational hierarchy.
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b. Charismatic authority – power based on an individuals personality and ability to attract and interact with followers. This is highly unstable, as followers may be disenchanted with the leader’s charismatic qualities. c.
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