Lecture 5 - The Commodification of Nature II - Lecture'5 The'Commodica2on'of'Nature Appropria2on'Subs2tu2on Agenda I Nature'in'poli2cal'economy II

Lecture 5 - The Commodification of Nature II - Lecture'5...

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Lecture 5 The Commodifica2on of Nature – Appropria2on & Subs2tu2on
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Agenda I. Nature in poli2cal economy II. Appropria2on, subs2tu2on, and “cheap nature” III. The geography of wood produc2on
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Key terms/concepts PeIy commodity produc2on SustainedJyield forestry Normalbaum Resource exhaus2on Rela2ve vs. absolute Appropria2on Subs2tu2on Externali2es “Cheap nature” Metabolic riP
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I. Nature in poli2cal economy
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Debates over nature & value Physiocrats (France) – 1750s land is the source of all value Adam Smith, David Ricardo – 1770s – 1820s nature conceived as useJvalues (“free giP” of nature) products of labor are the source of exchangeJvalue taken up by Alfred Marshall & neoclassicals (1899) focus on laborJcapital rather than landJlabor as produc2on factors Karl Marx – 1860s adopted no2on of “free giPs” of nature as root of metabolic ri, between city and countryside ecological contradic2ons of capitalism
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II. Appropria2on, subs2tu2on, and “cheap nature” Harris Ranch, CA hIps://
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Appropria2on of nature and labor “Commodity fron2er movements were also, crucially, about the extension of territorial and symbolic forms that appropriated unpaid work in service to commodity produc2on. This unpaid work could be delivered by humans—women or slaves, for example—or by extraJ human natures, such as forests, soils, or rivers. Second, such fron2er movements were, from the very beginning of capitalism, essen2al to crea2ng the forms of cheap nature specific to capitalism…” J Jason Moore, “The end of cheap nature,” in Structures of the World Poli7cal Economy and the Future of Global Conflict and Coopera7on (2014), p. 288
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Appropria2on Jubail polysilicon fer2lizer plant hIps://eng.hec.co.kr/business/bizintro/process_plant.asp?board_type=001&division=06
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Gene2cally modified corn hIp://earthfirstjournal.org/newswire/2011/06/21/newJplantJdiseaseJlinkedJtoJgmJcropsJandJpes2cides/
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Appropria2on “Process by which discrete aspects of farm [or renewable resource] produc2on are carved off and become the basis of industrial produc2on processes. These industrially manufactured products are then reintroduced into farm produc2on as ‘inputs or produced means of produc2on.’” J Prudham, Knock on Wood , p. 17, ci2ng David Goodman et al. , From Farming to Biotechnology: A Theory of AgroFIndustrial Development (1987)
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Subs2tu2on Rayon, produced from wood cellulose hIps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rayon
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Subs2tu2on “[A] more radical interven2on by industry, involving replacement of rural processes and products with industrial ones. Thus, although appropria2on inserts industrial inputs into rural produc2on, subs2tu2on involves the ‘elimina2on of the rural produc2on process, either by u2lizing nonJagricultural raw materials or by crea2ng industrial subs2tutes for food and fibres.’” J Prudham, Knock on Wood , p. 17, ci2ng David Goodman et al. , From Farming to Biotechnology: A Theory of AgroFIndustrial Development (1987)
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The Living Machine by Worrell Water Technologies hIp://
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