Lecture 1 - Introduction - GEOG 110\/ISF 101 THE ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF THE INDUSTRIAL WORLD Fall 2015 Instructor John Stehlin GSIs Gabe Eckhouse Juliet

Lecture 1 - Introduction - GEOG 110/ISF 101 THE ECONOMIC...

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Unformatted text preview: GEOG 110/ISF 101: THE ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF THE INDUSTRIAL WORLD Fall 2015 Instructor: John Stehlin GSIs: Gabe Eckhouse, Juliet Kunkel Lecture 1 The Emergence of the Economy Agenda I.  What is economic geography? II.  Some key quesUons III.  Capitalism’s first fully global century? IV. How did we get here? V.  Syllabus I. What is economic geography? Port of Oakland hZp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_of_Oakland οἰκονομία •  “oikos” à “home” •  “nomos” à “law/rule” •  “oikonomia” à “household management” Economy: The producUon and reproducUon of material life Poli*cal economy: The study of the producUon and reproducUon of material life, and the social structures and power relaUons that govern it Economic geography •  The study of how the producUon and reproducUon of human material and social life both shapes and is shaped by space and place •  So what isn’t economic geography? II. Key quesUons •  How do capitalist economies work at various spaUal scales? •  How do capitalism and industrializaUon create places? •  How has the geography of capitalism changed over Ume? •  What are the consequences of these processes and the possibiliUes for change? Allen ScoZ (1938 – ) Capitalism •  ProducUon in search of profit •  Investment in physical assets & labor-­‐power to produce salable goods •  CompeUUve markets between producers •  Reinvestment of profits in expanded producUon or indirectly through finance •  RevoluUons in processes •  UrbanizaUon and the separaUon of city and countryside Tendencies •  •  •  •  •  •  •  ConcentraUon/dispersal AgglomeraUon/differenUaUon Intensive and extensive expansion Time-­‐space compression DifferenUaUon/equalizaUon Deepening/widening of division of labor Constant change in labor process/wide adopUon of new methods III. Capitalism’s first global century? Bill Clinton, Bill Gates, Thabo Mbeki, Tony Blair, Bono, and Oasegun Obasanjo at the World Economic Forum, 2005 hZp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:World_Economic_Forum_Annual_MeeUng_2005a.jpg “GlobalizaUon” •  Thickening of global economic connecUons •  Global spread of commodity chains and division of labor •  Increasing speed of communicaUons and transacUons •  Erosion of capaciUes of naUon-­‐states to control trade and producUon •  “Global” culture III. Capitalism’s first global century? hZp://sociologytoolbox.com/globalizaUon-­‐global-­‐economy/ III. Capitalism’s first global century? hZp://sociologytoolbox.com/globalizaUon-­‐global-­‐economy/ Map of global internet connecUons by Chris Harrison hZp:// When wasn’t the economy global? •  Some connecUons were laid down centuries ago –  New York’s rise as coZon trade port, AtlanUc slave trade networks •  Commodity producUon has always been global –  Sugar in the 1600s, coZon in the 1800s •  Each previous revoluUon in transportaUon enabled economic reorganizaUon –  Telegraphs/railroads in the 1800s •  NaUon-­‐states shaped by global economic processes –  Britain was the “workshop of the world,” European foreign investment in U.S. railroads in the late 1800s •  Global relaUons not evenly distributed –  Some places more connected, some “skipped over” Geographic industrializaUon •  IndustrializaUon –  new processes, new products, new markets, new organizaUonal forms •  ProducUvity –  falling costs, rising consumpUon, mechanizaUon & automaUon, temporary advantages •  TransportaUon –  Falling movement costs, beZer communicaUon, faster interacUon, access to inputs and labor •  Energy –  New fuel sources, new materials, new resource fronUers All a byproduct of the compe--ve struggle for profit… Shiting industrial regions •  Industrial revoluUons –  1770s: texUles, iron, factories (UK) –  1850s: machinery, steel, railroads (US/Europe) –  1900s: flow producUon, electricity (US) –  1940s: oil, aerospace, plasUcs (US) –  1990s: microchips, informaUon (US, East Asia) All fed by shi9ing resource peripheries… Shiting poli*cal geography •  Centers of global commercial power –  Venice: 1380s – 1500 –  Antwerp: 1500 – 1569 –  Genoa: 1550s – 1627 –  Amsterdam: 1627 – late 1700s –  England: 1700 – early 1900s –  United States: early 1900s – ? –  Asia-­‐Pacific: 1970s – ? Each cycle financed the following one… From Giovanni Arrighi, The Long Twen*eth Century (1994) KondraUeff waves, from the University of Florida hZp://geog.ufl.edu/economic-­‐geography/ IV. How did we get from here… The “puxng out” system of the 17th century hZp:// …to here? Robot assembly of solar panels, Milpitas, CA hZp:// -­‐work-­‐without-­‐the-­‐worker.html Robert Heilbroner (1919-­‐2005) th Century The 17 “[A] separate, self-­‐contained economic world has not yet lited itself from its social context. The world of pracUcal affairs is inextricably mixed up with the world of poliUcal, social, and religious life. UnUl the two worlds separate, there will be nothing that resembles the tempo and the feeling of modern life. And for the two to separate, a long and biZer struggle must take place.” -­‐ The Worldly Philosophers, p. 24 “The Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the ReformaUon—indeed the whole world unUl the sixteenth or seventeenth century—could not envisage the market system for the thoroughly sound reason that Land, Labor, and Capital—the basic agents of producUon which the market system allocates—did not yet exist.” -­‐ The Worldly Philosophers, p. 28 For Friday •  Karl Polanyi, The Great Transforma*on •  Key issues –  How do the consUtuent elements of capitalism— land, labor, and capital—come into being? –  What is Polanyi’s answer? –  What does he argue will happen if they are treated as infinitely exploitable? ...
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  • Geography, •  Global, economic  geography, hZp, global   –  Sugar, producuon, Capitalism   • 

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