Midterm2

Midterm2 - HARDY-WEINBERG LAW p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 (p+q)2 = 1...

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H ARDY -W EINBERG L AW p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 Frequencies of genotypes (p+q) 2 = 1 Frequencies of alleles Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Needs: 1. Must be randomly mating 2. Must have no selection for or against a given phenotype (equal chance of one gamete meeting with another) 3. Must have low or no mutations 4. No migration 5. Large population 6. Sexual diploids 7. Need non-overlapping generations (separate F1, F2. .. generations) Selection = when a phenotype has environmental effect that causes its numbers to lower (recessive lethals, etc Consanguinity = Marriage of close relatives; inbreeding; usually 1st cousin marriage or uncle niece etc. lethal load = number of recessive lethals that are part of their genome Genetic Drift = a group of individuals that have come from another place and stayed in an isolated population Eugenics = improvement of gene pool Positive - the situation when you encourage certain people to marry and have large families because they have good genes. Negative – to prevent people with undesirable traits to have children Euphenics = improvement of phenotypes by changing diet, having insulin injections, getting spare organ transplants, etc. Euthenics = improvement of the environment by getting better schools to increase the IQs of children; getting rid of mutagens in drinking water Gene engineering = manipulation of genes by putting in good genes in gametes, taking cells out of mutated person, transduce the genes, inserting a gene to allow people to eat cellulose Polygenes = multiple genes that influence one phenotype (height) Mono-zygotic = identical twins MZA = monozygotic twins raised apart MZT = raised together Dizygotic = fraternal twins Concordance = similar/matching traits in comparing twins, siblings, and other pairs of people Telocentric = centromere on the end (close to telomere); rod-shaped chromosome Acrocentric = centromere somewhere in the middle; sub-terminal; J-shaped Metacentric = centromere in the middle; Chromomeres = Thickening areas of chromosome during cell division
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Midterm2 - HARDY-WEINBERG LAW p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 (p+q)2 = 1...

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