16-kb-systems - History of AI 1943 1969 The Beginnings...

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1 Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Knowledge-Based Systems CS472 – Fall 2007 Thorsten Joachims History of AI 1943 – 1969 The Beginnings 1943 McCulloch and Pitts show networks of neurons can compute and learn any function 1950 Shannon and Turing wrote chess programs 1951 Minsky and Edmonds build the first neural network computer (SNARC) 1956 Dartmouth Conference – Newell and Simon brought a reasoning program “The Logic Theorist” which proved theorems. 1952 Samuel’s checkers player 1958 McCarthy designed LISP , helped invent time-sharing and created Advice Taker (a domain independent reasoning system) 1960’s Microworlds – solving limited problems: SAINT (1963), ANALOGY (1968), STUDENT (1967), blocksworld invented. 1962 Perceptron Convergence Theorem is proved. Example ANALOGY Problem History of AI 1966 – 1974 Recognizing Lack of Knowledge Herb Simon (1957): Computer chess program will be world chess champion within 10 years. Intractable problems, lack of computing power (Lighthill Report, 1973) Machine translation Limitations in knowledge representation (Minsky and Papert, 1969) Î Knowledge-poor programs Knowledge Representation Human intelligence relies on a lot of background knowledge the more you know, the easier many tasks become ”knowledge is power” E.g. SEND + MORE = MONEY puzzle. Natural language understanding Time flies like an arrow. Fruit flies like a banana. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. (English) The vodka is good but the meat is rotten. (Russian) Or: Plan a trip to L.A. Knowledge-Based Systems/Agents Key components: Knowledge base: a set of sentences expressed in some knowledge representation language Inference/reasoning mechanisms to query what is known and to derive new information or make decisions.
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