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UNIT 1 Study GuideTHEMES IN THE STUDY OF LIFE1.Emergent Propertiesa.New properties emerge at each level of biological hierarchy.b.The study of life can be divided into different levels of organization: Atoms,Molecules, Organelles, Tissues, Cells, Organs and Organ Systems.2.The Power and Limitations of Reductionisma.Reductionist = reduction of complex systems to simpler components that areeasier to study (atoms making up biosphere; the structure of DNA)b.An understanding of biology balances reductionism with the study of emergentpropertiesi.For example, new understanding comes from studying the interactions ofDNA with other molecules3.Systems Biologya.Combination of components that function togetherb.Systems biology constructs models for the dynamic behavior of whole biologicalsystemsc.The systems approach poses questions such as:i.How does a drug for blood pressure affect other organs?ii.How does increasing CO2 alter the biosphere?4.Approaches to study biology (or really anything)a.Reductionistb.Emergent propertiesc.Systems BiologyLevels at which we study lifeBiosphereSystems BiologyEcosystemCommunityPopulationOrganismOrgan systemOrganTissueCellOrganelleReductionismMoleculeAtom5.The cell can perform all activities required for lifea.Homeostasis: Regulation of the internal environment to maintain a constantstate; for example, electrolyte concentration or sweating to reducetemperature.b.Organization: Being structurally composed of one or more cells, which are thebasic units of life.
c.Metabolism: Transformation of energy by converting chemicals and energyinto cellular components (anabolism) and decomposing organic matter(catabolism). Living things require energy to maintain internal organization(homeostasis) and to produce the other phenomena associated with life.d.Growth: Maintenance of a higher rate of anabolism than catabolism. A growingorganism increases in size in all of its parts, rather than simply accumulatingmatter.e.Adaptation: The ability to change over a period of time in response to theenvironment. This ability is fundamental to the process of evolution and isdetermined by the organism's heredity as well as the composition ofmetabolized substances, and external factors present.f.Response to stimuli: A response can take many forms, from the contraction ofa unicellular organism to external chemicals, to complex reactions involving allthe senses of multicellular organisms. A response is often expressed by motion,for example, the leaves of a plant turning toward the sun (phototropism) and bychemotaxis.g.Reproduction: The ability to produce new individual organisms, eitherasexually from a single parent organism, or sexually from two parent organisms.