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Biol112-ch41a_D2L_PPT

Biol112-ch41a_D2L_PPT - 1 Overview The Need to Feed Every...

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1) Overview: The Need to Feed Every meal reminds us that we are heterotrophs, dependent on a regular supply of food In general, animals fall into three categories: Herbivores eat mainly autotrophs (plants and algae) Carnivores eat other animals Omnivores regularly consume animals as well as plants or algal matter
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An adequate diet must satisfy three needs: Fuel for all cellular work Organic raw materials for biosynthesis Essential nutrients, substances that the animal cannot make for itself Main feeding mechanisms: suspension feeding, substrate feeding, fluid feeding, bulk feeding Several different methods of feeding shown in Fig. 41.2 2) Diet and feeding
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4) Concept 41.1: Homeostatic mechanisms manage an animal’s energy budget Nearly all of an animal’s ATP generation is based on oxidation of energy-rich molecules: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
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5) Glucose Regulation as an Example of Homeostasis Animals store excess calories as glycogen in the liver and muscles and as fat Glucose is a major fuel for cells (but not the only one) Hormones regulate glucose metabolism When fewer calories are taken in than are expended, fuel is taken from storage and oxidized, as illustrated in Fig. 41.3
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7) Caloric Imbalance Undernourishment occurs in animals when their diets are chronically deficient in calories Overnourishment, or obesity, results from excessive intake, with excess stored as fat, and abdominal fat cells look as shown in Fig. 41.4
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9) Obesity as a Human Health Problem The World Health Organization now recognizes obesity as a major global health problem Obesity contributes to a number of health problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colon and breast cancer However, malnutrition is much more common than undernutrition in human populations
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