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Lecture_3%20-%206x%20F06 - Technology and the Environment...

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1 Technology and the Environment Lecture #3 Reading assignment: R: Ch 2 What you should know What are the major types of pollutants? What are the causes of pollution? What are the consequences of pollution? What are the solutions? Environmental Disasters Donora, PA (air pollution) – 1948 Milwaukee, WI (water pollution) -1993 Love Canal, NY (soil pollution) – 1978 disaster public outcry policy legislation implementation assessment Environmental Disasters Donora, PA (air pollution) – 1948 October 1948: 5-day weather stagnation 20 deaths occurred thousands of people experienced severe respiratory distress airborne pollution was thought to be cause but at that time there was little knowledge about cause and effects of air pollution Environmental Disasters Milwaukee, WI (water pollution) -1993 more than 100 deaths occurred outbreak of illness (acute watery diarrhea in > 400,000 people) waterborne pollutants thought to be the cause cryptosporidium organism (protozoa single cell parasite filtration system failure in Public Water Works system Environmental Disasters Love Canal, NY (soil pollution) – 1978 canal built in 1892 to divert water for upper to lower Niagara Falls (abandoned in late 1890’s) Hooker Chemical given permission to dump 22,000 tons of chemical waste in 1942 school/homes built on site; local population experience chromosomal damage 1978 entire site evacuated Occidental (which bought from Hooker) paid $98 million to NYS for cleanup; $25 million to citizens reopened in 1988 (EPA pronounced as habitable; low cost housing)
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2 Environmental Disasters disaster public outcry policy legislation implementation assessment but can we do better now? patterns emerge that let us identify areas where we need to and can make improvement EPA sets standards (laws and regulations) to reduce emissions of known pollutants and to minimize introduction of new ones what are the pollutants of concern? Air Pollutants Criteria Air Pollutants (CAPs): CO, NO 2 , O 3 , SO 2 ,Pb, PM (NAAQS set for these by Clean Air Act 1970)- standards set to protect public health regardless of cost- based on many years of experience Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs); emitted in much lower quantities than CAPs, but effects can be severe even in small doses: e.g., asbestos, radon, benzene, heavy metals (Clean Air Act 1970: 8 chemicals listed;
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