networking-11 - Introduction to Networking Internet Example...

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Introduction to Networking
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Internet: Example Click -> get page Specifies - protocol (http) - location ( )
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Internet: Locating Resource name of a computer Implicitly also a file Map name to IP address DNS host local com cnn.com? cnn.com? a.b.c.d a.b.c.d
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Internet: Connection Http sets up a connection (tcp) between the host and cnn.com to transfer the page The connection transfers page as a byte stream without errors: flow control + error control Host Connect OK Get page Page; close
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Internet: End-to-end Byte stream flows end to end across many links/switches: routing (+ addressing) That stream is regulated and controlled by both ends: retransmission of erroneous or missing bytes; flow control HOST CNN.COM end-to-end pacing and error control routing
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Internet: Packets The network transports bytes grouped into packets Packets are “self-contained”; routers handle them 1 by 1 The end hosts worry about errors and pacing Destination sends ACKs; Source checks losses C HOST: B CNN.COM: A A | B | # , CRC | bytes B: to C
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Internet: Bits Equipment in each node sends packets as string of bits That equipment is not aware of the meaning of the bits Frames (packetizing) vs. streams 01011...011...110 Transmitter Physical Medium Receiver 01011...011...110 Optical Copper Wireless
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Internet: Points to remember Separation of tasks send bits on a link: transmitter/receiver [clock, modulation,…] send packet on each hop [framing, error detection,…] send packet end to end [addressing, routing] pace transmissions [detect congestion] retransmit erroneous or missing packets [acks, timeout] find destination address from name [DNS] Scalability routers don’t know full path names and addresses are hierarchical
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Internet : Challenges Addressing ? Routing ? Reliable transmission ? Interoperability ? Resource management ? Quality of service ?
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Concepts at heart of the Internet Protocol Layered Architecture Packet Switching Distributed Control Open System
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Protocol Two communicating entities must agree on: Expected order and meaning of messages they exchange The action to perform on sending/receiving a message Asking the time
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Layered Architectures Human beings can handle lots of complexity in their protocol processing. Ambiguously defined protocols Many protocols all at once How computers manage complex protocol processing? Specify well defined protocols to enact. Decompose complicated jobs into layers; each has a well defined task
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Layered Architectures Break-up design problem into smaller problems More manageable Modular design: easy to extend/modify.
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