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Organization behavior chapter 5 What is motivation? Motivation:Forces within the individual forces that account for the direction, level, and persistence of a person’s effort expended at work.Direction- an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives.Level- the amount of effort a person puts forth.Persistence- the length of time a person sticks with a given action.Types of motivation theories➢Content theories: Focus on individual needs – that is, physiological or psychological deficiencies that individuals feel a compulsion to reduce or eliminate.In another word, profile different needs that may motivate individual behavior. ➢Process theories: Focus on how cognitive processes as thoughts and decisions within the minds of people influence their behavior. In another word, examine the thought processes that motivate individual behavior. Theories of both types contribute to our understanding of motivation to work. But none offers a complete explanation.The content theoriestry to explain work behaviors based on pathways to need satisfaction and on blocked needs. Whereas acontent approachmay identify job security as an important individual need, a process approachwould probe further to identify why the decision to seek job security results in certain work behaviors.What can we learn from the needs theories of Motivation? Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs TheoryIdentifies five levels of individual needs.Assumes that some needs are more important than others and must be satisfied before the other needs can serve as motivators
ERG theory is also based on needs, but it differs from Maslow’s theory in three main respects. First, ERG theory collapses Maslow’s five needs categories into three:Existence needs, desires for physiological and material well-being.Relatedness needs, desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships. Growth needs, desires for continued personal growth and development.