ece475-l2 - ECE 475/CS 416 Computer Architecture Cost and...

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1 ECE 475/CS 416 Computer Architecture - Cost and Performance Edward Suh C omputer S ystems L aboratory [email protected] ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 2 Review ± Computer architecture is an integrated approach ISA, high-level organization, implementation, and software ± Architects must be aware of applications technology trends measures of cost and performance software/hardware interaction ± Technology and architectural trends Transistor count and bandwidth grow much faster than latency Take advantage of parallelism Move towards multi-cores
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2 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 3 The Design Process Estimate Cost & Performance Bad Ideas Mediocre Ideas Good Ideas ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 4 Semiconductor Manufacturing Process Source: SEMATECH
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3 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 5 Non-Recurring Engineering (NRE) Costs Source: EE Times, 2007 ± Needs a large volume to justify NRE costs ± Custom ICs vs. Programmable ICs (FPGAs)? ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 6 Estimating IC Cost Y C C C C C test p pkg test d die IC ± ± + + + = die die wafer die Y N C C ± =
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4 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 7 Dies per Wafer d d d w d w die A r A r L L A A N 2 2 2 2 ± ² ± = ± ² = ³ ³ ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 8 Die Yield ± Y wafer Wafer yield; 1- Y wafer is fraction of useless wafers ± D – Defects per unit area (typical 0.4 to 0.8) ± ± inversely proportional to number of masking levels (typ. 4.0) ± Manufacturing dictates most variables ± Architect can control A die : transistor count! For a 12 inch wafer, 120 good 2.25cm 2 dies or 435 good 1.00cm 2 dies ± ± ² ³ ´ µ · ¸ ¹ + ¹ = die wafer die A D Y Y 1
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5 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 9 Cost Trends: Time, Volume 1MB in 1977: $5,000; in 1995: $10; in 2000: 35¢ ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 10 Microprocessor Price
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6 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 11 Cost is Not Price!
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